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Issue:  Association - physical problems being defined as mental problems.
last update Nov 18, 2001 at 11:47 am central standard time - Texas, USA -- 442 hits from 28 Oct 2001 to 09 March 2002
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America Insensitive / Kept in the Dark /
or rotten news service?

©feb28, 2002 by L. L. Shipton - posted 2002 march 16, last update 2002 march 24
Sections of this page:
New Knowledge -
Clinton / Gore Insider Trading -
Evolution of Ideas -
Vericomposing with worms - Contents of the table
     || basic information || Pathogen Reduction || Probiotics || indoor worm containers ||
     || University - Research || Soil Salinity || No Till erosion alternative || Animal Fur || veri-compost with Tannery Effluent ||
     || Hospital Waste || vericompost sheetrock/construction || EarthWorm Recipes || Government Involvement ||
     || Keywords || CHADD || Fish Ulcerative Dermatitis || Pfiesteria || Karenia brevis || Gut Brain || Dipers || Ants ||
     Future - plants that get rid of toxins || Chernobyl || Bush hits Gore on environment ||

Political Issues of 1990's and 2000's - ©2002 March 16 -- moved on March 30, 2002.
Issues that make America appear to be several years behind in technology -
News Snippets -
Current land
  Live Moon Phase Display
Moon Phase of the Pacific Time Zone
     NOAA Weather for
Waco, TX.
Off Site

Water Shortage?
The buzz words of Global Warming, Greenhouse Gasses, Global distalation, and Red Tides have professionals looking for answers.

*Global Warming*
In reality it seems as if the issues of Global Warming are from increased salinity on almost all crop lands from irrigation, overuse of aquifers, and from the scarcity of the micro organisms that normally filter groundwater and reserve rainwater
Not from increasing ocean levels. When the micro organisms that deposit and work new top soil are killed the top soil may be subject to erosion.

*Greenhouse Gasses*

*Global distalation*

*Red Tides*

nitrogen acidifies the soil

New Knowledge:
1) Humans have a gut brain that controls digestive functions semi-independently
2) importance of acidophilus / probiotics in health, 
3) antibiotics kill probiotics and allow digestive fermentation resulting in methane gas, 
4) males have three types of sperm (killers, blockers, and go getters) - could be because some sperm could be fungal coated and the killer sperm goes after them or any other abnormalities, 
5) human brains are part of the CNS (central nervous system) have stem cells and regenerate like other organs of the body, 
6) many degenerative diseases happen because of an enzyme or nutritional deficiency, even if the person needs medicine it seems as if certain foods or supplements are capable of helping nutrition and the immune system of these people.
7) it appears that some areas have fish with diper rash
8) Algal Blooms/Eutrophication/Hypoxia/Plankton/Algal Species
New Uses for old knowledge
9) vericomposting - for sewage sludge and household organics - reduces/eliminates pathogens.
vertical unit prototype [Florida] 1997, Oct 1998 in Maine a full size unit to process septic sludge, 1999
11) NoTill - nightcrawlers go down

The Issues Are:
1980's manure spills, increasing salinity of crop land, scarcity of clean drinking water, pollution of aquifers, ocean pollution with dying - bleached reefs. 

1990's landfills, recycling, search for crops and animals that have drought and salinity tolerance, manure spills with pharmesudicals in them, pathogens in manure, decreased nutrician and health of crops,

2000's looking at crops like sugar cane that seem to require a lot of fresh water, looking at countries that seem to promote increased pollution, manufacturing which has a high employment rate per profit compared to pharmesudical companies that have a low employment rate per profit, manufacturing which can be territorial and interested in employees having businesses on the side, compared to pharesudical companies which may switch areas dependent on the areas solely based on political / economic status.

-- vericomposting has the potential of taking a lot of land but the worm gin is a vertical system http://gnv.fdt.net/~windle/neal/index.htm that has already been used in Florida and other areas to convert pathogenic sewage sludge => midnight soil => compost => to worm castings that have benificial micro-organisms for the plants.


Algal Blooms/Eutrophication/Hypoxia/Plankton/Algal Species (over 90 images) (examples: algal blooms and fish kills, fish lesions, pfiesteria, plankton samples)


The buzz words of niger, gay, Nazi, Democracy, Constitutional Republic, Capitalist, NWO - New World Order, slavary,

The color may be black or white with blond hair
Vermicomposting construction materials (drywall, ect.), cow manure, pig manure, dog poop, sewage sludge, composting (worm) toilet to replace septic tanks. 

These are links for vermicomposting systems that are small enough for a house as well as systems that can take on the sewage sludge of a city. Worms can apparently take sewage sludge with human pathogens and leave a end product that has the potential of being pathogen free. There are links on this page to show some of the tests that have been done but  there do not seem to be any tests that show what percentage of pharmesudicals (antibiotics, ect.) are left if any after vermicomposting.  Early articles are sceptical of vermicomposting as a way to reduce pathogens and later ones have actual studys on pathogen reduction.

As a general rule, plants that have low drought tolerance will have low salinity tolerance. 

Insider Trading

The external links on this page are for citations only and 
1959 Nuclear -- agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and World Health Organization that prohibited the WHO from publishing statistics of nuclear problems without IAEA consent. 
1961 Berlin Wall [Iron Curtain] August 13, 1961 -- 1990
1972 Boston, Massachusetts -- New England massive red tide [toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium (Gonyaulax) tamarense] next major USA 
          event seems to be in 1986
1974 HAB - First International Conference on Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms which was held in Boston, Massachusetts
1978 HAB - Second International Conference on Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms held in Miami, Florida in 1978 
1980's Biogas plants that use manure and plant culls for methane ** biogas plants have been operating in Denmark and Germany since 
            1980's. after fermentation the liquid and solid residue left over is used as fertilizer. 
1980's                -- major work resumed Tigris and Euphrates which meet at the Shatt Al Arab, 
                            South Iraqi Shias including the Marsh Arabs, - Ma'dan people, 
                            ([ http://www.american.edu/ted/MARSH.HTM ] Iraq's majority Sunni government is attempting to weaken 
                            the Ma'dan because they are Shiite Muslims, maintaining religious links with Iran's Shiite leadership. They 
                            have also been accused by the government of harboring refugees from oppression in Baghdad. 
                            ...The salinization of hte land is polluting formerly good agricultural areas, such as the land surrounding the 
                            'Amara Marsh.) 
                            [ http://www.iraqifd.org/indict_saddam/indict-links.html ]
1980, ADD the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) [American Psychiatric Association 
           (APA) childhood disorder that had previously been called "hyperkinesis" or "hyperactivity" was replaced with the term "attention
          deficit disorder" (ADD) and two subgroups were defined as ADD with hyperactivity (ADDM) and ADD without hyperactivity
1985 HAB - Third International Conference on Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms which was held in St Andrews, Canada
1985 a

1986 Chernobyl reactor four exploded 1986 April 26th -
             bioremediation - [  http://www.epa.gov/swertio1/download/citizens/bioremediation.pdf ]
1986-87  -- major fish kills and red tides ** these eb and flow (on a global scale) even to the present day. 
                   possible reasons: 
                     Ballist picked up in one port being discharged in another port -- that may have radiation contaiminated salt water organisms, 
1987 ADD - 1987 revision of the DSM-III (DSMIII-R; APA 1987) excluded ADD/WO all together. Instead, the idea of a single type of 
         ADD was reestablished and the term "Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder" (ADHD) was introduced. 
1987 CHADD was formed in the town of Plantation, Florida during 1987 (toxic aerosols that can result in symtoms of ADD and ADHD.)
1990 Berlin Wall [Iron Curtain] -- On July 1 1990, an economic, monetary and social union between East and West Germany was 
          formed, and all restrictions concerning travels were dropped. 
1990 Caspian Sea caviar-producing sturgeon as one bellwether (legal catches declined 78 percent between 1990 and 1994 
1990 Iraq ** 1990 - 1991 [Gulf War, Persan Gulf War]
1995 Massachusetts Law Library - Title V the state environmental code governing septic systems
         keywords: grey water, black water, composting toilets, zero-discharge, Massachusetts Title 5, 
              approved alternatives to septic and holding tanks,
              gray water systems, recirculating sand filters, package aerobic treatment plants, Wisconsin elevated sand mounds, composting
              toilets, vermicomposting, vermicomposting toilets, 
              EPA - [  http://www.epa.gov/region01/steward/ceitts/wastewater/techs/washwater.html ]
1995 ADD - New York State educational law, (School Law 1995 p.289) students with disabilities may be disciplined, except for misconduct 
          resulting from the disability it is illegal for school officials to remove an identified student from school for infractions resulting from 
          an attention deficit disability. Disruptive classroom behavior is listed as a direct manifestation of the hyperactive and attention 
           deficit disabilities. [ http://www.acalogic.com/adhd_research.htm ]
1999 Kosovo ** March 24
2001 Private Prisons -- [ news 1 ] Sodexho Alliance, which recently bought out food service company Sodexho Marriott Services, sold off its
                                        8 percent stake in Corrections Corporation of America on May 30. This company has had numerous complaints yet
                                        was still providing food service for Universities, Colleges, and public schools.
[ news 2 - LaVega ]
2002 Fungus -- "Backfence: There's a fungus among us; it's called Quorn" Mar 6, 2002; James Lileks; Star Tribune. "...But what is it?
                             Well, another page identifies Quorn as fermented myco-protein, which puts my mind at ease. Drunken Fungus sounds
                              like a better description,..."Quorn is made by Marlow Foods a subsidiary of AstraZeneca ... In 1985 Quorn was launched."
                              More information at [https://thepiedpiper.tripod.com/EdFalseAdvertising.html#fungus] about the mega company that
                             calls it's self ** Novartis / AstraZeneca / Marlow Foods / Syngenta / Sandoz / Ciba-Geigy / Gerber Baby products /...**

  What makes me wonder is why Clinton did not support vermicomposting like Canada has? Bacteria and earthworms are some of the ways that radionuclides are being neutralized and removed from the contaminated soil. Even though earthworms may not be a cure all Clinton seems to be supporting a earth biospere that will be benificial to ants like the
   Tentative hypotheses' for causes of Red Tides are - ballast water being transported globally, Sahara dust storms that rise to the atmosphere and travel with the weather fronts, chemicals killing micro-organisms, side effects of fish having ammonia "diaper rash" over their whole bodies and the red tides are just opportunistic, and - or manure decomposing in water and utilizing the available oxygen. One thing that does not seem to be in doubt, is that the killer conditions produced can result in toxic aerosol capable of creating dermatitis, amnesia, respiratory, and behavior problems.
[ http://www.mrdowling.com/608-ottoman.html ]
the Turkish Ottoman Empire ruled for almost 600 years
World War I broke out in 1914.
        Britain, France, the United States, and Russia were united as the Allied forces.
        Central Powers of Germany Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Turkish sultans.
[ http://www.caabu.org/education/chronologypart2.html ]
1912 --  Morocco becomes a French protectorate; Arab Nationalism and opposition to Ottoman rule begin to develop.
1914 --  Ottoman Empire enters World War One as an ally of Germany
1918 --  End of Ottoman rule in Arab lands.

Iraq -- [ http://www.xrefer.com/entry/217664 ]
1948                 --  State of Israel in 1948
1979                --  Iran - discriminatory legislation against women was been proposed, adopted, and enforced
1979 July 16      -- President Bakr resigned (Iraqi) [ http://www.emergency.com/hussein1.htm ]
1979 July 22      -- Saddam Hussein took over (Iraqi) officials and military not of Saddam's party were killed
1980-1988        -- Kuwait supports Iraq in the First Persian Gulf War with Iran.[ http://www.historyguy.com/GulfWar.html ]
1980's                -- major work resumed Tigris and Euphrates which meet at the Shatt Al Arab,
                            South Iraqi Shias including the Marsh Arabs, - Ma'dan people,
                            ([ http://www.american.edu/ted/MARSH.HTM ] Iraq's majority Sunni government is attempting to weaken
                            the Ma'dan because they are Shiite Muslims, maintaining religious links with Iran's Shiite leadership. They
                            have also been accused by the government of harboring refugees from oppression in Baghdad.
                            ...The salinization of hte land is polluting formerly good agricultural areas, such as the land surrounding the
                            'Amara Marsh.)
                            [ http://www.iraqifd.org/indict_saddam/indict-links.html ]
1986 April 26th -- Chernobyl, reactor four exploded
1986-87            -- major fish kills and red tides ** these eb and flow globally even to the present day.
1987                 -- CHADD was formed in the town of Plantation, Florida during 1987
1990-91            -- Saddam Hussein and the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait
                        -- Operation Desert Storm
                        -- Gulf War Syndrome.
1997                 -- Bioremediation and Vitrification of Radionuclides
1998 Aug          -- Árpád Pusztai
2001 Sept 11    -- Two planes crash into the world trade center and the Pentagon -
                                terrorist leader Osama bin Laden,
                                Camp X-Ray in Cuba,
2002 April 4      -- [ http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0404/p01s03-uspo.html ] Abu Zubaydah
                                Palestinian operative captured last week in Pakistan, considered Osama bin Laden's No. 2 or No. 3
                                lieutenant, is believed to have been active in directing Al Qaeda cells,
*********         -- Osama bin Laden, Al Qaeda, Abu Zubaydah, and the Taliban
2001                    -- Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable
                                [ http://www.frtr.gov/matrix2/section1/toc.html ]
                                [ http://www.epa.gov/etv ]

Additional Reading:
"The Naked Rise Of Communism"; Kluckhohn, Frank L.; 1962; Monarch; Derby, Connecticut

"2018 A. D." also called "King Kong Blues"; Lundwall, Sam J.; 1975; Daw; NY 


  Citations that show some of the history 
and comparison of the amount of nuclear material from 
1986 Chernobyl reactor four exploding, GulfWar (1990), Kosovo - US involvment (1999), 

map of Isreal

** the map and information of the British Empire
[ http://freespace.virgin.net/andrew.randall1/mideast.htm ] the British Empire

    Iraq           Silent Hiroshima Culls A Nation's Children

[ http://www.iacenter.org/rc12600.htm ]
Ramsey Clark: Report to UN Security Council re: Iraq -- January 26, 2000
dropping 88,500 tons of explosives, the equivalent of 7 l/2 Hiroshima bombs.
[Shipton's note only about 320 tons would have been DU the rest would have been conventional muntitions.]
-The Oil for Food Program

Ramsey Clark's bloody resume -- January 24, 2002
[ http://www.townhall.com/columnists/michellemalkin/mm20020124.shtml ]

Depleted Uranium       How the Pentagon Radiates Soldiers & Civilians with DU Weapons
[ http://www.iacenter.org/depleted/dietz.htm ] May, 1997
20| DU Spread and Contamination of Gulf War Veterans and Others (excerpt)
    The fallout range of airborne DU aerosol dust is virtually unlimited. These micro-particles can be inhaled and ingested easily and that makes them dangerous to human health.
***         Leonard A. Dietz
[ http://www.iacenter.org/depleted/dietz.htm ]
    We review estimates of the tonnage of DU munitions fired during the Gulf War. Even if only one or two percent of a low estimate of 300 metric tons of DU fired had burned up, this would have produced 3,000-6,000 kg of DU aerosols.

[ http://www.antenna.nl/wise/uranium/dgvd.html ]
Contamination of Persian Gulf War Veterans and  Others by Depleted Uranium --  by Leonard A. Dietz
  July 19, 1996 (last updated Feb. 21, 1999)
We review estimates of the tonnage of DU munitions fired during the Gulf War. Even if only one or two percent of a
     low estimate of 300 metric tons of DU fired burned up, this would have produced 3000-6000 kg of DU aerosols.

Persian Gulf War also called Iraq, Desert Storm or simply Gulf War
[ http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/du_ii/du_ii_tabf.htm ]
[Shipton's note: total amount of DU would approximate 860,502 rounds of variaing amounts of DU approximate total of 320 tons]

PBS [Persian Gulf War or Desert Storm]
[ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/gulf/ ]

serbia Kosovo war timeline
[ http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1998/10/kosovo/timeline/ ]
1991 Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovina declare independence from Yugoslavia
1999 March 24 -- NATO launches airstrikes.

Depleted uranium "threatens Balkans cancer epidemic" -- 07/30/99:
by Environment Correspondent Alex Kirby (BBC) July 30, 1999
[ http://www.softmakers.com/fry/du.htm ]
    Using calculations based on the Pentagon's statement that one in five of the rounds fired by its A-10 aircraft over Kosovo were DU munitions, Mr. Coghill estimates that more than 500,000 DU rounds were fired, of which half detonated.
      He says that would have resulted in the release of about one thirty-thousandth of the amount of radiation released at Chernobyl in 1986. "But that was in the form of caesium on the ground. This is free-floating particulate matter."

Making the Harm Visible  --  Global Sexual Exploitation of Women and Girls
Speaking Out and Providing Services
 Iranian Women and Girls - Victims of Exploitation and Violence, Sarvnaz Chitsaz and Soona Samsami
These blatantly prejudiced views shed light on how discriminatory legislation against women has been proposed, adopted, and enforced in Iran since 1979.

**** Lanning~Shipton's note: From Murmansk (North-East Russia) to 

UK Russian nuclear dustbin threats
[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/europe/newsid_607000/607175.stm
Monday, 14 August, 2000, 13:49 GMT 14:49
Murmansk: World's biggest nuclear dustbin By James Robbins in Murmansk 
      Russia has the world's largest stockpile of nuclear weapons. 
      However, it is the risk of an accident with ageing nuclear reactors from obsolete Soviet submarines which is causing most concern. 
      A fifth of all the world's reactors and nuclear fuel is concentrated around the Kola Peninsula, home to Russia's Northern Fleet of submarines. 

UK Whistleblower clears last hurdle ---- [Russian Nuclear]
[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/europe/newsid_922000/922843.stm
Wednesday, 13 September, 2000, 09:50 GMT 10:50 
   Alexander Nikitin: Victory after five years of court battles 
    The Russian Supreme Court has completely exonerated a former naval officer, who had been charged with treason for passing information about Russian nuclear pollution to a Norwegian environmental group. 
...Mr Nikitin was arrested in 1996 after he contributed to a report by the Norwegian environmental group Bellona on the dangers posed by radioactive pollution in the Arctic seas. 
...In addition to his revelations about radioactive pollution, Mr Nikitin also provided Bellona with information about safety systems for naval nuclear reactors and details of Soviet nuclear submarine accidents. 
      Prosecutors say this amounted to high treason, but Mr Nikitin and Bellona say the information was of environmental importance, and not subject to Russian secrecy laws. 

Citations: Biogas and other composting methods

Methane (Biogas) from Anaerobic Digesters --- This brief was updated in February 2001
[ http://www.eren.doe.gov/consumerinfo/refbriefs/ab5.html ]
In the United States, the availability of inexpensive fossil fuels has limited the use of digesters solely for biogas production. However, the waste treatment and odor reduction benefits of controlled anaerobic digestion are receiving increasing interest, especially for large-scale livestock operations such as dairies, feedlots, and slaughterhouses. Where costs are high for sewage, agricultural, or animal waste disposal, and the effluent has economic value, anaerobic digestion and biogas production can reduce overall operating costs. Biogas production for generating cost effective electricity requires manure from more than 150 large animals. 

Citations: Russia, nuclear pollution

Nuclear Age Has Claimed Billions of Lives - Russian Ecologist Interfax News Agency, May 22, 2000 
[ http://cci.glasnet.ru/news/MAY00/00052905.TXT ]
     The nuclear age has claimed more than 2.33 billion lives, Russian ecologist Alexei Yablokov, a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, has said. 
.....Asked why the statistics have never been seen in the open press, the ecologist cited a 1959 agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and World Health Organization that prohibited the WHO from publishing such statistics without IAEA consent. 

Caspian Sea Region -- February 2002 -- has a great maps
[ http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/caspian.html ]

Caspian Sea Region: Environmental Issues 
United States Energy Information Administration -- April 2000
[ http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/caspenv.html ]
...Untreated waste from the Volga River, into which half the population of Russia--and most of its heavy industry--drains its sewage, empties directly into the Caspian Sea. Oil extraction and refining complexes in Baku and Sumgayit in Azerbaijan are major sources of land-based pollution, and offshore oil fields, refineries, and petrochemical plants have generated large quantities of toxic waste, run-off, and oil spills. In addition, radioactive solid and liquid waste deposits near the Gurevskaya nuclear power plant in Kazakhstan are polluting the Caspian as well.

Turkey: Environmental Issues 
United States Energy Information Administration -- March 2000 
[ http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/turkenv.html#MARINE_POLLUTION ]
Introduction Turkey's economic emergence has brought with it fears of increased environmental degradation. As Turkey's economy experienced high levels of growth in the mid-1990s, the country's boom in industrial production resulted in higher levels of pollution and greater risks to the country's environment. With domestic energy consumption on the rise, Turkey has been forced to import more oil and gas, and the resultant increase in oil tanker traffic in the Black Sea and Bosporus Straits has increased environmental threats there. 

Iran: Environmental Issues 
United States Energy Information Administration -- March 2000
[ http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/iranenv.html#AIR POLLUTION ]
... The city's air pollution recently reached a crisis stage in December when high levels of carbon monoxide and other pollutants engulfed the capital for several weeks. With a cloud of smog hovering over Tehran, Iranian authorities shut down elementary schools and closed off the city center to motorists for several days. Iranian-state radio urged Tehran's residents to stay indoors, and many who did venture outdoors resorted to wearing face masks and breathing through wads of cloth. The polluted air was blamed for causing several deaths, as well as causing problems for people with asthma, heart, and skin conditions. ...
...  Alternative Energy Sources Iran's renewable energy consumption is low. With 9% of the world's oil reserves and 15% of its natural gas reserves (80% of which have not been developed), Iran has an abundant supply of fossil fuel resources, which tends to discourage the pursuit of alternative, renewable energy sources. Iran's 1997 renewable energy consumption--including hydropower, solar, wind, tide, geothermal, solid biomass and animal products, biomass gas and liquids, and industrial and municipal wastes--totaled 106 trillion Btu, a 6% increase over the previous year. ...

Why Socialism Causes Pollution Posted on February 13, 2002 by Thomas J. DiLorenzo 
[ http://www.fee.org/vnews.php?nid=183 ]
     Corporations are often accused of despoiling the environment in their quest for profit. Free enterprise is supposedly incompatible with environmental preservation, so that government regulation is required. 
     Such thinking is the basis for current proposals to expand environmental regulation greatly. So many new controls have been proposed and enacted that the late economic journalist Warren Brookes once forecast that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) could well become "the most powerful government agency on earth, involved in massive levels of economic, social, scientific, and political spending and interference. 
     But if the profit motive is the primary cause of pollution, one would not expect to find much pollution in socialist countries, such as the former Soviet Union, China, and in the former Communist countries of Eastern and Central Europe. That is, in theory. In reality exactly the opposite is true: The socialist world suffers from the worst pollution on earth. Could it be that free enterprise is not so incompatible with environmental protection after all? 


Constitution article XIV power of congress to remove disabilities of United States officials for Rebellion
Evolution of Ideas

It seems as if the Clinton / Gore administration was keeping the issues from the American people by whiningand making excuses while the Bush (shrub) brothers had states that still believed in getting things done instead of manipulating the stock market. By manipulating the stock market (insider trading) the Clinton's and Gore's have made a lot of money talking up mental pharmesudical futures, sidelined investigations, circumvented the justice system, saying that America is a Democracy instead of a Constitutional government and made America into a nation of mental hypochondriacs.
The Clinton Crisis - Arkansas Online
"I think it's plain that the president should resign and spare the country the agony of this impeachment and removal proceeding," Clinton said. "I think the country could be spared a lot of agony and the government could worry about inflation and a lot of other problems if he'd go on and resign." Refering to Nixon when Hillary Clinton
Copyright © 1998 Nando Media Copyright © 1998 Associated Press Return to the special report main page WASHINGTON -- In 1974, Hillary Rodham, a 26-year-old lawyer fresh out of Yale University, researched impeachment and pored over the U.S. Constitution to see if there were grounds to force Richard Nixon from office.

Hillary Clinton was one of 43 lawyers on the House Judiciary Committee's special impeachment inquiry staff. Boyfriend Bill Clinton, her schoolmate at Yale, turned down a chance to join the team and headed home to Arkansas to run for Congress.

Impeachments fall into three broad areas of conduct, the report concluded: "1) Exceeding the constitutional bounds of the powers of the office ... 2) Behaving in a manner grossly incompatible with the proper function and purpose of the office; and 3) Employing the power of the office for an improper purpose, or for personal gain."

300 cases of school violence

For families that have heard Tipper Gore and who advocates drugs as a part of mental health in the same way that some have advocated that inhibitions can only be lost by alcohol. She may have been raised in a social level or generation that believed control was won or lost by external stimulants (chemical or physical) but the majority of the American people have self control that the Clinton's and Gore's have not shown. For Tipper Gore to advocate a certain standard has children and people think that if it does not work for them that they are not socialy acceptable and the potential of children becoming depressed since they can not keep up with the (Jones) Gore's.
       The Clinton's and Gore's have made it seem as if America is insensitive to the affairs of the rest of the world and mentally unbalanced. They have managed make it seem socially acceptable (for those that believe them) to not have self control, and by not allowing .


Gulf War -- enough information about pollutants / pfilestria toxins in water / fog / rain to speculate about Gulf War Illness being from a combination of immunizations and evaporation. With the amount of pollution from the Red Sea / Tigris River / Shatt-al waterway flowing into the Arabian Gulf, to know that concentrations caused by evaporation should be
winds blow its toxic aerosol onshore Karenia breve exposure should be brief except when the immune system has other factors to deal with, but pfiesteria has the potential of causing long term reactions.
Mental Health - June 7, 1999 White House Conference
      Tipper makes not meantion of nutrician and uses the CHADD
       HMO party line in that you should see a doctor and and the        specialist that you need [advocates a mental health        professional] but makes no meantion that many people never        get approval from thier HMOs to see the specialist that they        need - be it a ENT, Dietician, or mental health professional.
       Considering that Al Gore wanted to be president it makes him        appear to be particularly incompetent because St. Judes       Children's Hospital is in Tennessee and they advocate that       nutrician plays a important role in health, with Tipper Gore's      "degree" she should know that nutrician would be required for       any type of health and should have advised the Clinton's not to       take money from CHADD or Novartis / Gerber who seem say
      that nutrician does not seem to be important for health.

Al Gore, Earth in the Balance; Ecology and the Human Spirit (Houghton Mifflin, 1992)

Clinton / Gore -- Whine about education problems, even when the United States has a educational system that attempts to educate all it's citizens, compared to countries that shuttle many of their kids to tech schools and do not have all citizen attempt to earn a high school diploma. The countries that they compare the United States to are smaller than the United States, have local and central government close togeater and do not have the need to teach some of those courses as intestivly as the United States does.
Also, some Democrates whine about the drop out rate when the schools which can imply that other countries have perfect students, when the school have already culled and done their own droping out. Thier education systems may work for them what I take exception to is that the Democrates do not have full discloser of their facts, if they do know them.
Allows National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) to dictate, even when "New Math" did not work in the sixties and seventies. These people apparently review the books and not the actual facts of which schools are actually getting scores and what books they are using.

Whine about mental health but support HMO and parity act that does not require counseling in fact at times the doctor is required to make a desion and is not allowed to recomend a specialist.
Some of the biggest whiners Kennedy, Hillary Clinton, Gore

EPA -- The Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Act of 1998, Title VI of Public Law 105-383, section 604(b), enacted on November 13, 1998.
Total Maximum Daily Load Level (TMDL) for the EPA

***Whine about pollution and water -- but do not have government agencies post what research is being done. Clinton also does not address those issues in his state of the union address.
***issue Salinity - instead refers to ocean levels dropping and gives support to Canola (low low erucic acid rapeseed) a oil plant that can handle salinty while the government also dumps on plants that can not handle salinity like tobacco under the guise of health. Some other plants that have been clear cultivated (erosion problems), have low salt tolerance, and require water are cotton, peanuts,
Tocopherols (Vitamin E)
Tobacco, peanuts, cotton, Clean Cultivated Fields, NoTill, Erosion, earthworms,

promotes plants that produce their own pesticides and may contribute to erosion by killing worms in fields and in vermicultues.

Compared to Canola "Because of its tolerance to salinity, canola has been used as the first crop on newly drained dikes in the Netherlands. Canola requires approximately 16 to 18 inches of water through its growing season, with 8 to 8.3 inches used by annual varieties in July near flower and pod fill.

Tipper Gore revieled that she was treated for situational depression when her son, Albert III, was struck by a car and almost killed in 1989. She was effectively treated with antidepressants. [Radcliffe Quarterly - Fall 2000 Revealing Hidden Lives by Jill Abramson]

bipolar disorder also called or manic depression

  George W. Bush Jr. from 1994-2001 46th Governor of the State of Texas. November 8, 1994, with 53.5 percent of the vote. In an historic re-election victory, he became the first Texas Governor to be elected to consecutive four-year terms on November 3, 1998, winning 68.6 percent of the vote.
-- Saturday, 20 January, 2001, 21:37 GMT President Bush sworn in

*** John Ellis "Jeb" Bush Governor of Florida
Jeb Bush
, Florida's 43rd Governor Elected: November 1998

TnCrimLaw's Online Library -[http://tncrimlaw.com/library.html] Help Return The Law To A Learned Profession - [http://www.tncrimlaw.com/civil_bible/burch_speech.html]
The Civil Bible - [http://www.tncrimlaw.com/civil_bible/]

1987 CHADD started in Plantation, Florida
red tide, Pfiesteria, Gymnodinium breve, Karenia breve,        dinoflagellate 1993 --
toxic aerosol
antibiotics --
probiotics including acidophilus -- 1997
vericomposting -- 1990+
education --
routine use of antibiotics for humans was
      discontinued about 1993 -- this was potential chaos for teachers.

“A Brain In The Gut.” NISE. [Online] Retrieved December 4, 2000. http://whyfiles.org/026fear/physio1.html (Note: Two brains are better than one, especially if you're hungry)        

Gershon, Michael D. “The Enteric Nervous System: A Second Brain.” (1999.) McGraw-Hill. [Online] http://www.hosppract.com/issues/1999/07/gershon.htm (Note: Once dismissed as a simple collection of relay ganglia, the enteric nervous system is now recognized as a complex, integrative brain in its own right.)

Sobel, Rachel K. “The wisdom of the gut.” April 3, 2000 [Online] Retrieved December 4, 2000 http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/000403/gut.htm

“Private Papers of Nobel Scientist Joshua Lederberg Added to "Profiles in Science" Web Site.” [Online] Retrieved http://www.nih.gov/news/pr/mar99/nlm-02.htm (Lederberg won the Nobel Prize in Medicine at age 33 for scientific work started at age 20, which showed that bacteria can in fact, reproduce through sexual recombination. Although Lederberg was "astonished" to receive the prize, his diary entry for October 26, 1958, the day he heard he had won it, also records some of his fears: "On the whole I'm a little afraid the fuss and bother more than outweigh the egotistic satisfactions, the cash and the prestige factors that might help in getting my lab going.")

-- Texas and Florida -- states that are doing something about education.

Core Knowledge: review and a list of schools that have adopted it (Polk County Public Schools, Bartow (District-Wide Adoption) ) this is Florida.
Saxon Math used in our public school -- Waco, Texas
articles written by John Saxon
News articles about Saxon Math

May 22, 1997 HMO Liability Bill Becomes Law
Senator David Sibley R. TX paves the way for HMO's to be accountable by passing a bill allowing patients to question an HMO's desion and ask for meditation - if that does not work then they are allowed to sue. Few lawsuits have had to be instituted though, because mediation has worked, like theripy would probly have worked for many of thos children in other states.

Florida tests vermiculture for pathogen reduction.
pdf --- magizine review
Worms seem capable of converting sewage sludge, human wastes of many types, animal manure and much more. Most pathogens do not like oxygen and vermiculture or cold composting uses oxygen and worms as bioreactors which seem to get rid of all pathogens without creating greenhouse gasses like methane.
Organic waste can take a lot of oxygen to decompose and causes detrimental conditions in water, what worm do is to convert the waste into non-pathogenic topsoil that is ready for plants

"On the discussion of using tillage to remove deep compaction I've seen tightly compacted soil down as deep as 5 feet. Nightcrawlers will burrow down 8 feet and are the only way to restore the soil structure in these areas. Areas that have silted in are a perfect example. Below is a terrace that silted in over a period of 15 years of tillage. The soil is densely packed by years of silting and driving on it when wet."
Night Crawlers and No Till -- Link 1, Link 2.

  Vermicomposting with worms



Contents of the table
|| basic information || Pathogen Reduction || Probiotics || indoor worm containers ||
|| University - Research || Soil Salinity || No Till erosion alternative || Animal Fur || vermi-compost with Tannery Effluent ||
|| Hospital Waste ||
vermicompost sheetrock/construction || EarthWorm Recipes || Government Involvement ||
|| Keywords || CHADD || Fish Ulcerative Dermatitis || Pfiesteria || Karenia brevis || Gut Brain || Dipers || Ants ||
Future - plants that get rid of toxins || Chernobyl || Bush hits Gore on environment ||

Some of my standards, whether I get there or not.
I am not endorsing any organization by having these here, but they do show where someone could go if motivated.








Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) seem to have proliferated but
Fish Ulcerative Dermatitis can happen because of nutritional problems which mean that ulcers on fish do not necessarily mean a HAB.
 I am not affiliated with or endorsed by any of these,
All words and logos belong to the original holders,
this is just a list of places that you may go to find citations.

Algal Blooms/Eutrophication/Hypoxia/Plankton/Algal Species,
Fish that have low body fat, in poor health, in Ammonia / Nitrogen water -- do they have a colossal case of diper rash all over their bodies?
Do algal blooms cause fish kills or are they a after effect?
Bilge water / blow the ballist organisms carried from port to port in ballast water
Global Distiation / NASA photos -- Atmosphere > Aerosols > Dust/Ash
worms take energy of bacteria and use probiotics to convert that energy into another form that does not give pathogens food.
earthworms can tie up radionuclides and have been proposed for the Chernobyl radionuclides
Austrilia has a picture of soil that has gone saline
[Topline] most green waste can be reduced by about 90% in volume (one ton, 2000 lbs, reduces to about 200 lbs of worm castings).
A family of four produces about seven pounds of organic or food waste per week.
Converting 7lb of waste to less than one pound of worm castings.
Vermicomposting generates water as the water of the organic mater is released
"one pound of worms can convert one pound of pig manure to compost in 48 hours!"
earthworms compost faster than windrow or invessel composting and produces a high quality compost"
 Gulf States Marine Fisheries  Commission (GSMFC)  U.S. Geological Survey   NOS photo gallery

Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) are a reality and like land dust storms or volcano ash, can transmit their byproducts long distances by global distilation by wind currents in the atmosphere.
Blow the Balist is
Visible Earth NASA Visible Earth
-- Atmosphere > Aerosols > Dust/Ash

Location: Pamlico Estuary, NC Description: Menhaden kill, May 1991 Credit: Courtesy of North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources

Environment Australia Fish kills can occur naturally or due to man-made disturbances, such as pollution of water quality and excessive land clearing. More research is needed on the causes of fish kills in northern Australia

Alliance for the Chesapeake Bayexerts from the Bay Journal [http://www.bayjournal.com/update/99-02/menhdn.htm]
"...had little, or no fat in the body cavity and exhibited signs of poor nutrition and starvation; approximately 12 percent of these fish had visual external lesions, ulcers or sores.

"Atlantic menhaden are an extremely important link in the coastal marine food chain, transferring enormous amounts of nutrients into forage biomass, while at the same time improving water quality - they have the potential to consume up to 25 percent of the Bay's nitrogen."
[Shipton's note: the way this is described leads me to associate it with diper rash - could the water have a ammonia problem and the fish have a bad case of external diper rash?]
|| USA ||
National Science FoundationWoods Hole Oceanographic InstitutionNational Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
State of the Coast at National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Aquatic Pathobiology Center University System of Maryland
|| China ||
China Harmful Algal Bloom Webpages
|| World ||
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
128 Member States,
meets every two years

|| Korea ||
Biological Research Information Center of Korea
Lower part of the page is in English and has great links.






Australia: Welcome to the 9th International Conference on Algal Blooms. Research on Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) first emerged as a discipline in its own right at the First International Conference on Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms which was held in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1974. Of major concern at that time was the massive 1972 New England red tide caused by the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium (Gonyaulax) tamarense. This successful meeting was followed by two further International Conferences on Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms held in Miami, Florida, in 1978 and in St Andrews, Canada, in 1985, respectively. [http://www.utas.edu.au/docs/plant_science/HAB2000/]
Real Time Environmental Monitoring for Cities Across the Nations
United Nations Environment ProgrammeUNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre NOAA Fisheries
Global Coral Disease Database at

[US fish and wildlife (USFWS)]

[http://www.wormdigest.org/articles/index.cgi?read=64]Written By: Ted Leischner Posted On: Sunday, 17 December 2000
     These species of worms can vermicompost organic wastes such as sewage biosolids, agricultural wastes like animal manures and coffee pulp, municipal food waste, brewery and paper pulp and cardboard recycling wastes.
    Some of the notable projects she highlighted include Medical University of South Carolina, processing 100 lbs. of cafeteria food waste per day, Sampson Correctional Institute, feeding 30 lbs. of food waste and office paper daily to worms and New York Hospital, using eight Worm Wigwams to handle 60-140 lbs. per day. This is eight tonnes of food waste per year. But, then there is Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington, with a low-tech system with the ability to transform 300 lbs./day (35-tons/year) into valuable castings.
     Composting worms move feedstock around more and have grinding gizzards like chickens to produce a superior textured product, free of harmful salts and of a lower pH (5.8-7.2) that is more favourable for plant growth. Because of the unique microbiology of vermicomposting, nitrification and humification is more complete with levels of plant nutrients in a form more available to plants. This means nitrogen is stored in a form that will not pollute water and no researcher or grower present could cite an example where the use of earthworm castings has ‘burned’ plants.
I have not won any of these awards (yet) they are just here as guides for people that are intrested.
(added March 20, 2002)
USA Awards
Awards for science / enviromental issues
International Awards
[President's National Medal of Science]
Program Areas:
*Biology *Computer, Information Sciences *Crosscutting/Interdisciplinary Programs *Education *Engineering *Geosciences *International Programs *Math, Physical Sciences *Polar Research *Social, Behavioral Sciences

    National Science Foundation Medal - President's National Medal of Science
Nobel Prizes
Nobel Prize

Nobel Physics Prize Nobel Chemistry Prize Nobel Literature Prize
Nobel Peace Prize Nobel Economics Prize Nobel Physiology & Medicine Prize
Blue Plant Award
Blue Planet Award
Duke of Edinburgh's

The International Award For Young People
The Pulitzer Prizes
Kurt Schork Memorial Fund
in New York

Joseph Pulitzer (Born 1847; died 1911) Pulitzer made his way from his birthplace in Mako, Hungary to St. Louis in 1865, a city he called home for nearly two decades. In 1878, Pulitzer purchased the bankrupt St. Louis Dispatch and merged it with the unprofitable St. Louis Post-a combiantion that produced the city's leading newspaper. His sensationalistic approach to covering news, dubbed "yellow journalism" was fully developed upon his move to New York, where he purchased the New York World and became known as a world-renowned publisher. The coveted Pulitzer Prize for journalists is named for him.

Mark Twain, 1835–1910 (Nov. 30, 1835 - April 21, 1910)
Samuel Clemens, more commonly known as Mark Twain was born in Florida, Missouri on Nov. 30, 1835
"Courage is resistance to fear, mastery of fear--not absence of fear."
"A lie can travel halfway around the world while the truth is still putting on its shoes."
'Keep away from people who try to belittle your ambitions. Small people always do that, but the really great make you feel that you too can become great."
[http://www.boondocksnet.com/twainwww/] [http://www.kyrene.k12.az.us/schools/brisas/sunda/great/2jon.htm]

Pulitzer summarized his credo: "Our Republic and its press will rise or fall together. An able, disinterested, public-spirited press, with trained intelligence to know the right and courage to do it, can preserve that public virtue without which popular government is a sham and a mockery. A cynical, mercenary, demagogic press will produce in time a people as base as itself. The power to mould the future of the Republic will be in the hands of the journalists of future generations."

Some of my standards, whether I get there or not.
I am not endorsing any organization by having these here, but they do show where someone could go if motivated.
   Growing Plants with Worm Poop: Vermicompost as an Amendment for Soilless Media. ©apr98 [http://floriculture.osu.edu/archive/apr98/vermicom.html
Ohio Floriculture at Ohio State University"one pound of worms can convert one pound of pig manure to compost in 48 hours!"
By Dr. Jim Metzger Professor and D.C. Kiplinger Chair 
References: Drs. Clive Edwards and Scott Subler from the Entomology Department at The Ohio State University.
  Evaluation of High Tunnel Strawberry Production for Southern Ohio, 2000 [http://ohioline.osu.edu/~prec/hort/data/2000/htunnel2000.htm]

The Effectiveness of Mermiculture in Human Pathogen Reduction for USEPA Biosolids Stabilization -- Compost Science & Utilization, (2001), Vol. 9, No. 1, 38-49
 Has a long list of citations.

Magazine Review

The Water Research Institute

"A Comparison Of Vermicomposting And Composting" What are the similarities and differences in composting systems that can be operated in open or in-vessel systems - with or without worms? J. Dominguez, C. A. Edwards and S. Subler Reprinted by permission from BioCycle April 1997, pages 57-59

1) Orange County Enviromental Protection Division,  --   Orlando, Florida
2) Florida Department of Environmental Protection,    --   Orlando, Florida
3) Soil Ecology Laboratory, Ohio State University,     --   Columbus, Ohio
4) Tri-Tech Laboratiories, Inc,                                         --   Orlando, Florida

Achieving Pathogen Stabilization Using Vermicomposting
By: Bruce R. Eastman Reprinted with permission from BioCycle November 1999, pages 62-64

Vermicomposting for pathogen stabilization. Vermicomposting is the practice of using worms to convert solid waste into a soil amendment. A pilot project at the City of Ocoee (FL) wastewater treatment facility had shown that red wigglers reduced four pathogen indicators in wastewater biosolids (sludge): enteric virus, fecal coliform, helminth ova, and Salmonella spp. A full scale project aimed at demonstrating a three- to fourfold reduction of pathogen indicators to produce Class A stabilized biosolids (acceptable to EPA) was undertaken. The results show that earthworms do reduce pathogen indicators and can quickly accomplish the EPA standard of a three- to fourfold decrease. The study also shows that using traditional thermal precomposting to destroy pathogens prior to treatment with earthworms is unnecessary. --Water Environment & Technology May 2000.
12 pg paper. A field experiment tested the feasibility of vermicomposting as a method for eliminating human pathogens to obtain United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Class A stabilization in domestic wastewater residuals (biosolids).

"Preliminary data, obtained in small-scale vermicomposting systems, indicate that human pathogens may not survive vermicomposting. After 60 days of vermicomposting, fecal coliform bacteria in biosolids dropped from 39,000 MPN/g to 0 MPN/g. In that same time period, salmonella sp. dropped from <3 MPN/g to <1 MPN/g."
  The Irish Worm Company
Your One Stop Shop to Compost the lot.

[Shipton's note: this site may not have as many products as the ones you will find below, but they have a nice info page. Jump to MO. for some great information.]
6.2 Rate of organic matter decomposition The rate of organic matter decomposition in the vermicomposting process is significantly higher than that in conventional composting. Experimental trials at the State University of New York, found decomposition and breakdown of aerobic sewage sludge to be three times as rapid by vermicomposting as it was by composting.

Producers Can Go Pro To Keep Livestock Healthy
April 20, 2000
OSU News Kyle Sharp Source: Teresa Morishita COLUMBUS, Ohio


Laura's note - competitive exclusion seems to be a word that could be used when you use worms as bioreactors since they work with thier own probiotics and enzymes.
It seems as if many pathogenic bacteria are
anaerobic and probiotics are benificial bacteria that can fight these pathogens. Using worms is a type of cold composting using aerobic conditions and allowing the gut bacteria of the worms to take care of items that the human gut bacteria did not want.

Probiotics is a general term that refers to the natural bacteria normally found in the stomach or intestine of healthy animals. When an animal becomes sick, disease-causing bacteria called pathogens replace the normal bacteria, Morishita said. "By treating animals with probiotics, the goal is to have normal bacteria colonizing all the intestinal sites within the animal, so bad bacteria can't attach and cause disease," she said. "This concept is called competitive exclusion." Probiotics are most often used in animals just born or hatched. Young animals have no intestinal bacteria, so treating with probiotics -- the earlier the better -- helps establish a good set of bacteria before pathogens arrive, Morishita said. This treatment also is recommended during times of stress for the animal, such as during vaccination or after the outbreak of a disease. "Probiotics are not a wonder drug. They are a preventive medicine step," Morishita said. "Disease can still occur despite their use, and if it does, an antibiotic would likely be needed to kill the pathogens. Then normal bacteria could be reestablished to reduce the possibility of future illnesses." But the use of probiotics early on should lessen the potential for invasion of harmful bacteria.

Lactobacillus acidophilus is one type of bacteria normally found in the gut of animals. It gives off a substance that makes the stomach and intestines more acidic and less environmentally friendly to pathogens. The use of natural, nonharmful bacteria to prevent pathogens is not a new idea. The concept has been around for more than 30 years, but it has become more effective in recent years, Morishita said. "The key is using specific bacteria isolated for use with specific species of animals," she said. "In the past, probiotic use had variable results because the host specificity had not been totally worked out yet. Now that it's been determined which bacteria work best for each type of animal, they are more effective, and probiotic use is picking up." More stable forms of packing also have made probiotics more effective. They usually come in a freeze-dried form and are given to animals by either mixing them with water or incorporating them into feed, Morishita said.
--Morishita et al (1997) Avian Dis 41, 850

--Morishita, T.Y., Aye, P.P., Harr, B.S., Cobb, C.W., and Clifford, J.R. 1997. Evaluation of an avian-specific probiotic to reduce the colonization and shedding of Campylobacter jejuni in broilers. Avian Dis. 41:850-855.

FDA US Gov citation
July 2001, Volume 1, Issue 1 Human Health Impact and Regulatory Issues Involving Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Animal Production Environment

Teresa Y. Morishita, DVM, MPVM, MS, PhD, Dipl. ACPV Assistant Professor and Extension Poultry Veterinarian Dept. of Veterinary Preventive Medicine and The Ohio State University Extension

Animal Net April 19, 2000

Lumbricus rubellus: Also known as red worm, red wiggler, manure worm and other common names.

**completely white worm "entrachyadid" or pot worm, a small white worm that if there are a lot of them bin it indicats that there are acidic conditions

short white creatures that jump very well are springtails

Nightcrawlers (aka "Lumbricus terrestris")

Earthworms survive freezing temperatures by going below the frost line or estivating by each worm forms a tight ball deep in the soil and slows it's

In addition to improving soil structure and fertility, research has found soil rich with earthworms hosts fewer parasitic nematodes. Earthworm activities directly stimulate beneficial organisms that trap, ear and out-compete plant-eating nematodes.

  Vermitech Systems, Ltd.
Albert Eggen

From simple plastic bins to large composters that can be used by schools, hospitals or other large places.
[http://www.vermitechsystems.com/installations.html] Installations
[http://www.wormdigest.org/articles/index.cgi?read=27] Simple Plastic Bins Written By: S. Zorba Frankel and Kelly Slocum Posted On: Thursday, 6 January 2000, at 11:15 p.m. In Regard To: Issue 23: Worm Bins (S. Zorba Frankel and Kelly Slocum) Simple plastic bins are by far the most common type of vermicomposting bin. They were first commercially available in North America in 1990 from Canadian Original Vermicomposter Ltd. (now Original Vermicomposter, Ltd.) and many other companies followed, very quickly, with a great number of bins.

[http://vermico.com/speakers.html] keywords: canadian, vermicomposting
     Albert Eggen holds three international patents, including one for the self-harvesting Vermi-Organic Digester, an in-vessel vermicomposting system currently in use at the Brockville Psychiatric Hospital (Ontario, Canada), Metro Hall (the seat of the city’s administrative and mayor’s offices in Toronto, Canada), at Arnold Air Force Base in Tennessee, and in other institutional settings. Eggen’s Vermi-Organic Digesters are ideally suited for on-site processing of organic waste, generated by hospitals, military bases, schools, prisons, hotels, and other institutions wanting to minimize collection and hauling costs of organic residuals while producing a valuable soil amendment for landscaping needs.
      Albert is the co-author of three books on vermicomposting, two of which are college course manuals. A fourth book is entitled The Canadian Vermicomposting Guide. Since 1990, his Toronto-based firm, Original Vermitech Systems Limited, has put more than 50 million Eisenia fetida earthworms to work processing household, institutional, and even industrial waste throughout the United States and Canada.
  [Topline] most green waste can be reduced by about 90% in volume (one ton, 2000 lbs, reduces to about 200 lbs of worm castings).

New Mexico
[http://www.rt66.com/~topline/books3a.html] Worms Go to School Many years of experience and painstaking research and development in the vermiculture field, and teacher co-authoring during close collaboration on all aspects of the book, provide teacher's with an excellent, worm oriented, classroom guide and workbook. This is the best I've seen! Grades 1-8 by: David J. Smith and Albert Eggen $12.00
[http://www.rt66.com/%7Etopline/digst5.html#ottawa] pictures -- 1) U of O, 2) worms at school 3) Vermitech® installation at a Canadian Hospital -- these pictures show a proven waste disposal
[http://www.rt66.com/%7Etopline/comp4.html#comp2]How to get Discount Pricing -- County or City Government: -- Schools, Teachers and Home Schoolers:--
[http://www.rt66.com/%7Etopline/sitemap.html]-[http://www.rt66.com/%7Etopline/display.html] site index
  The Worm World -
Worm Gin large enough for a water treatment plant
http://gnv.fdt.net/~windle/neal/index.htmWorm Gin
WaterTreatment / SewageSludge / septic sludge
The Burrow [http://fdt.net/~windle/]
  Worm Farm (worm farms) [https://secure.in-command.com/cart/Wormfarm/list.php3?g=Wormfarms]
from < 100 lb/day to units that can handle 600 lb/day
  Composting (Worm) Toilets [http://pbc.virtualave.net/earthworm/issue41.html]
[Shipton's note: these do not mention using earthworms but the rest of the information seems top notch.]

What it is ... ways to treat it ...
ways to use it.

Beautiful pictures of
Sample soil beds for greywater irrigation and infiltration
Organisms adversely affecting human health do not grow outside of the body (unless incubated and with rare exceptions) but are capable of surviving especially if hosted in human feces.
Urine is sterile save in exceptional circumstances (e.g., grave urinary tract infections). In households with infants in diapers, fecal matter can enter the laundry water, mainly through washing machines that has a pathogen killing effect in themselves by breaking the encapsulation and exposing potential pathogens to detergnets.
    Yelm - KISS—Keep It Simple & Save - N.Califormia [http://www.yelmworms.com/kissplan.htm]
Case Studies in Vermicomposting: (pathogen reducation included) 1994KISS Plan for vermicomposting on a modern dairy or horse farm
  =coir brick http://www.yelmworms.com/suppliesstore.htm
Coconut fiber -- coconuts can grow in saline soil and coconut fiber is a good soil amendment as well as a excellent worm bedding.
$2.25 + $2.25 s&h
  Squirmy Wormz Farm-KISS [http://www.squirmy-worms.com/farming.html]Australian Worm Farm
  The Squirmy Wormz Farm [http://www.squirmy-worms.com/index.html]
[http://www.envirolead.com/lifecyc2.htm]dog poop - worm swag and can-o-worms
  Happy D Ranch [http://www.happydranch.com/wormbins/index.php3]Different Worm bins

Iditarot! your composting consultant
Iditarot!(c) Vermicomposter
The Worm Wigwam
     Earthworms are secondary decomposers, that is, they eat the microbes which eat the decaying food. Those microbes are bacteria, mold, fungi, protozoa and other organisms which are too small to see. Their enzyme activity physically changes the food waste to a sludge or slurry, which the earthworms suck through their mouth. Microbes also break large particles into their chemical components, releasing heat, air, water and humus
     Compost can be formed in four weeks in heated piles, and takes six months to cure. Vermicompost is a rich, black, small particle ready in four to six weeks and does not need a curing stage. .
  Worm-a-Roo [http://www.worm-a-roo.com/]side-by-side home unit

Worm Digest
1990 "first plastic worm composting system was introduced to the North American marketplace."
1993 stacking tray units, Australia
???? ontinuous flow systems, UK"
???? lateral movement design
1997 vertical unit prototype Worm Gin

[http://www.wormdigest.org/articles/index.cgi?read=23] Issue 24: Worm Bins For BIG Jobs Written By: S. Zorba Frankel and Kelly Slocum Posted On: Tuesday, 2 May 2000
[http://www.wormdigest.org/articles/index.cgi?read=27] Simple Plastic Bins Written By: S. Zorba Frankel and Kelly Slocum Posted On: Thursday, 6 January 2000, at 11:15 p.m. In Regard To: Issue 23: Worm Bins (S. Zorba Frankel and Kelly Slocum) Simple plastic bins are by far the most common type of vermicomposting bin. They were first commercially available in North America in 1990 from Canadian Original Vermicomposter Ltd. (now Original Vermicomposter, Ltd.) and many other companies followed, very quickly, with a great number of bins.
] Holcombe's Earthworm Reactor - Editors' Review Written By: Kelly Slocum Posted On: Tuesday, 2 May 2000
[http://www.wormdigest.org/articles/index.cgi?read=64] Issue 26: The Power Of Earthworms Takes Centre Stage Written By: Ted Leischner Posted On: Sunday, 17 December 2000

[http://www.wormdigest.org/articles/index.cgi?read=70] Review of different worm bins
  vermicomposting links [http://www.oldgrowth.org/compost/vermi.html]
  US Composting Council

[http://www.compostingcouncil.org/links.cfm] composting links
keywords: started,
canadian, vermicomposting
[HTTP://www.composter.com/] Jim McNelly, The Compost Man.

  North Carolina University [http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/people/faculty/sherman/vermiculture/worm-pub's.htm]
Publications, some of the individual links are below
long list of resources
a snapshot of what is happening
Department of Biological & Agricultural EngineeringLong list of resources
includes addresses for Ohio State University Dr.Clive Edwards and Dan Holcomb of Oregon Soil Corporation
   VERMICOMPOSTING BASICS by The Cultured Worm [http://www.env.duke.edu/cee/ecofoot/vermicomposting.html
Your worms can eat anything that you do (and some things you wouldn’t touch!). I would, however, avoid adding meat and dairy products to your bin until you are comfortable managing the air and water requirements. Meat and dairy consume oxygen quickly, so they have high potential for producing both heat and bad odors. You should also avoid feeding your worms foods that are high in salt. If you pay attention though, you can feed your worms anything that is organic.
  Terra-Firma Biotechnologies (S) Pte Ltd


{go to the site for more information}
Wormcastings consists of organic matter that has undergone physical and chemical breakdown through the muscular gizzard which grinds the material to a particle size of 1-2 microns. Nutrients present in wormcastings are readily soluble in water for uptake by plants.

Earthworm bioreactors have in-house supply of various enzymes such as protease, lipase, amylase, cellulase, lichenase and chitinase. Hence earthworms can biodegrade complex biomolecules into simple compounds which can be utilised by the symbiotic gut microflora.

Earthworms encourage the growth of microorganisms in their gut by providing ideal conditions therein. Bacteria and actinomycetes which are important in waste degradation increase exponentially along the length of the tubular bioreactor, reaching densities about 1000 greater than in the surrounding soil. However, E. coli, salmonella and other pathogens are destroyed due to competition from the active microflora and intestinal secretions. Most of the human pathogens are anaerobic and cannot survive in the highly aerobic micro-environment created by the earthworms.

Earthworms produce castings with balanced plant nutrients. Vermicastings also have immobilised microflora which continue their function in the soil. Vermicastings are rich in vitamins, enzymes, antibiotics and growth hormones.
  [USCC] A letter to the Peoria County Board [http://mailman.cloudnet.com/pipermail/compost/2001-December/003374.html]
The lowering of the organic matter percentage of the topsoil each year has the effect of reducing earthworm populations, thereby reducing the porosity and tilth of the soil. Compacted and less friable soils have the effect of increasing stormwater run-off, decreasing water percolation in the soil, and promoting erosion. Composting reverses the slow process of topsoil loss. Soils with more organic matter simply hold moisture better.
-- resource recovery,
  Missouri Resources -- [School Project]
[Shipton's note: Worms can handle meat, but organic food like meat can smell and decompose fast, which means that oxygen requirements need to be considered.]
[How big is the biggest worm in the world? I haven’t met him yet, but I’ve digested some waste paper that said a South African worm grew as long as 22 feet. I’ve also heard six feet or three feet. This I gotta see!]
MO. [http://www.dnr.state.mo.us/alpd/swmp/wormlist.htm]
MO. [Show Me Worms Eating Food Waste We Will Show You Solid Waste Reduction]
     "The worms bunch together if it gets cold and scatter to the sides of the bin if it gets too hot. Too cold is 40 degrees or below and too hot is anything above 90 degrees. We had noted that the expert worm wranglers who offer written and Web site advice say to stay away from dairy products, creams and meats. This is due to potential odors and another problem, composting temperatures. We remained in our show me mode and fed the worms a healthy meal of pork bones, used paper dinner napkins, sauces and vegetables. The meal was probably healthy for the people who dined on it, but the worms were not happy with the heat generated by those particular food scraps.
      It took a few days for the core temperature to drop below 100 degrees, but once things cooled down, the worms made up for lost time. All we can find of that feast are a few thin bone scraps. We have seen a few potato peelings try to send up new shoots, but the worms and their micro-buddies break it all down and eat it up."
It is important not to overfeed the herd because the excess food might create an acid or caustic environment that could be harmful. Weigh the food with the help of a scale to make sure the worms are getting the right amount of feed.
  Texas A&M [http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/extension/compostfacility/worm1.htm]
  North Carolina [http://www.raleigh-nc.org/sws/vermicomposting.htm]
City of Raleigh Solid Waste Services Raleigh Recycling Vermicomposting
Children's environmental activities

[http://www.rco.on.ca/factsheet/fs_e05.html] Canadian VERMICOMPOSTING
[http://perc.ca/PEN/1992-10/5r.html] 5 r's --
"5 R's Update Vermicomposting: Let the Worms Do It! by Hazel Jack"
According to Christa Pettingill of the Recycling Council of Ontario, residential waste comprises about 40 percent of garbage. About 30 percent of residential waste is organic material that could theoretically be food for worms. PERC's own worms If you would like to see vermicomposting in action, drop around to the PERC office. We have two active composters with worms quietly munching away, turning coffee grounds, banana peels and apple cores into lovely rich dark brown compost. The little wrigglers are so quiet and well-behaved that most of the time we forget they are there.

[http://recycle.utoledo.edu/ktlcb/EducationalMaterials/library/curriculum_guides.html]11. Worms Eat Our Garbage K-6 Written by Mary Appelhof, this guide explains how to manage a worm bin in a school setting. The book integrates earthworm activities with soil science, plant growth studies, mathematics, and language arts.
12. Worms Go To School 1-6 Environmental Science activities to accompany a class vermicomposting project and help students become interested in the environment. Developed by David J. Smith and Albert Eggen, President of Original Vermicomposter.

[http://www.vcr-mvr.ca/home_e.cfm] Canada's climate challenge

[http://www.teckcominco.com/enviro/vcr.html]Canada's Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry sponsored by the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation and Natural Resources Canada, is a program that challenges Canadian organizations to voluntarily limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels. Teck Cominco supports voluntary initiatives as an effective means to achieve environmental goals, while allowing the flexibility necessary for companies to remain competitive. 1998 Report of Results: Teck - December 1998 (77 KB) 1998 Report of Results: Cominco - September 1999 (148 KB) Further information about the VCR Program can be found at the VCR website.

- Califormia
nice opening articleworkshops, tour of Yelm Earthworm & Castings farm - 

Has large composters too
[http://vermico.com/speakers.html] keywords: canadian, vermicomposting
     Albert Eggen holds three international patents, including one for the self-harvesting Vermi-Organic Digester, an in-vessel vermicomposting system currently in use at the Brockville Psychiatric Hospital (Ontario, Canada), Metro Hall (the seat of the city’s administrative and mayor’s offices in Toronto, Canada), at Arnold Air Force Base in Tennessee, and in other institutional settings. Eggen’s Vermi-Organic Digesters are ideally suited for on-site processing of organic waste, generated by hospitals, military bases, schools, prisons, hotels, and other institutions wanting to minimize collection and hauling costs of organic residuals while producing a valuable soil amendment for landscaping needs.
      Albert is the co-author of three books on vermicomposting, two of which are college course manuals. A fourth book is entitled The Canadian Vermicomposting Guide. Since 1990, his Toronto-based firm, Original Vermitech Systems Limited, has put more than 50 million Eisenia fetida earthworms to work processing household, institutional, and even industrial waste throughout the United States and Canada.

  Reference to
Organic Recyclers Anonymous (ORA)

Under a County contract, Organic Recyclers Anonymous (ORA) provides technical assistance to school that want to set up diversion systems for food scraps.
For information on financial or technical assistance for food scrap diversion contact: Karin Grobe Organic Recyclers Anonymous Phone: (831) 427-3452 E-mail: kgrobe@pacbell.net

The following group had saving without worms, think what could be done with worms
* Educational and Environmental Benefits of the Project The environmental benefits of the    project are indisputable. Food scraps were diverted from the County landfill, extending the    landfill's life.
* The environmental impacts of hauling tons of food scraps to the County landfill-air    pollution, transportation congestion, depletion of fossil fuels-were avoided. The resulting    compost was used to improve local soils.
* In Santa Cruz County, food is the largest component of the waste stream for food stores    and restaurants. The project was a vehicle for educating business owners about food    scrap diversion. Outreach efforts succeeded in attracting the attention of managers of    local restaurants, grocery stores, hospitals, conference centers, public schools and    retirement homes.
* The Grey Bears outreach efforts educated many community members about commercial    food scrap diversion. To the extent that the public understands that food scrap diversion    is important and recognizes that businesses are working on solutions, they will be more    willing to compost their own food scraps at home.

  Australian Worm Growers Association Vermiculture Inc [http://www.dragnet.com.au/~lindah/awga/AWGA.html]
[AWGA] Australian Worm Growers Association Vermiculture Inc
  India [http://www.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/~macer/india/bii98.html
Production of Farm Vermi-Compost using Treated Tannery Effluent Water 
    Salt is becoming a visible problem in aquifers and on farm land. 

Eutrophication - Having waters rich in mineral and organic nutrients that promote a proliferation of plant life, especially algae, which reduces the dissolved oxygen content  and often causes the extinction of other organisms. Used of a lake or pond.  --  definition from [Dictionary.Com]

Another issue is How Much Water does a plant or animal take?  Cattle use the waste products from plants straw, and seed that does not certify for human consumption by pasing through the stomach of a ruminant  animal like deer, cattle, sheep, goats, manatees - sirenians -- ungulates like deer or cattle who are browsing or grazing animals 

vermicompost has already been through Aerobic (oxygen) cold composting that making it a fertilizer that (if it runs off into water) should not create oxygen depleted zones in the water.
Meat and dairy consume oxygen quickly, so they have high potential for producing both heat and bad odors -
these items (and manure) are very diverse in organic materials and could help a depleted, saline crop field.

  No Till / erosion managment

[Shipton's note:
I have not found anything about North American earthworms eating seeds, unless the seed is decomposing - it seems as if seeds are too big for an earthworm to eat.]
On the discussion of using tillage to remove deep compaction I've seen tightly compacted soil down as deep as 5 feet. Nightcrawlers will burrow down 8 feet and are the only way to restore the soil structure in these areas. Areas that have silted in are a perfect example. Below is a terrace that silted in over a period of 15 years of tillage. The soil is densely packed by years of silting and driving on it when wet. Once nightcrawlers get established you'll notice rainwater won't stand on the surface but soak in at these areas.
  Dr. Mary Peet, NCSU
Management of Soil Biological Characteristics
this exert is from
'Sustainable Practices for Vegetable Production in the South' © 1995.
North Carolina State University

published by Focus, P.O. Box 369, Newburyport MA 01950-1469. Contact Ron Pullins, Voice: (508) 462-7288 or Focus Publishing to order a copy. The cost is $28.95 plus $4.50 shipping. Specific citations to over 250 references are given in the book version but not in the HTML version of this document.
...   In addition, other soil bacteria (denitrifiers) reduce nitrates to elemental nitrogen or nitrous oxide which are lost into the atmosphere as they are volatilized. Denitrification is most likely to occur in poorly drained soils where oxygen levels are low (anaerobic conditions).
    Not only do naturally occurring microorganisms play an essential role in the nitrogen cycle, they have also been reported to decrease some populations of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. For example, the fungus Gliocladium virens, which tends to increase with increased levels of organic matter, controls damping-off pathogens. G. virens is also available commercially. Agrobacterium, a naturally occurring soil microorganism, reportedly restricts growth of Fusarium, a fungal pathogen causing a number of diseases in vegetable crops. Beneficial microorganisms in the root zone, particularly species of Pseudomonas, have been associated with a decrease in take-all decline of wheat. Over time, two species of soil-dwelling amoebae in Canada reduced populations of two root pathogens.
    Earthworms ...
  Washington State University [http://www.wsu.edu/NIS/Universe/adventures.html]
| U N I V E R S E M A G A Z I N E - F A L L 1 9 9 7 |
A Natural History of the Underground
      How do we increase agricultural productivity without creating a further threat to the environment and human health?
      In an unsettling 1995 essay, "Vanishing Knowledge," biologist David Ehrenfeld contemplates the eclipse of vital knowledge about the natural world by academic reductionism and high-tech specialization. He recalls, for example, Darwin's observations on the relationship between earthworms and soil fertility. Different species of earthworms play different roles in the intricate ecology of soil. Currently, writes Ehrenfeld, there is a "potentially momentous battle" being waged in North America between native earthworm species and invasive European and Asian species.
  Rancho Mondo Compost Manual [http://www.ranchomondo.com/compost/earthwrm.htm]
Earthworms and Compost
      The finest compost made is by earthworms. Their castings contain 5 times the nitrate, 7 times the available phosphorus, 11 times the potassium, 3 times the exchangeable magnesium, and 1 1/2 times the calcium that occurs in the top 6" of uneaten soil. Earthworms derive nutrition from the organic content of the soil by eating it. In its passage through the worm, the mineral subsoil undergoes changes that make it immediately available for plants. While earthworms inhabit the surface layers of soil, they commonly burrow deep into the earth (as deep as 8 feet), honeycombing the soil.
      They come to the top to deposit castings in the loose surface layers of the soil, bringing the subsoil to the top and mixing it with the topsoil. The aerating tunnels greatly increase the air capacity of the soil (in some cases increasing 60-75%). Water penetration into the soil is much improved, being quickly absorbed instead of pooling or running off. Earthworms produce a topsoil that is nearly a neutral humus. Wormcasts in acid soil are much less acid (sometimes 75%); and alkaline soils are made less alkaline.
  Can-o-Worms Alaska

Earthworms Castings are an excellent source of nutrients for plants, providing minerals, nitrogen, enzymes, and more in a form roots can easily take up into the system. Unlike fresh compost, fresh worm castings will not "burn" the plants and turn the leaves yellow. The following abstract is from research into soil health and nitrogen cycling enabled by earthworms which feed on surface waste matter.

  Interpretive Summary:
   Earthworms play an important role in soil. Earthworms move and degrade crop residues, releasing nutrients back into the soil. Through their burrowing activities, earthworms can improve soil aeration and water infiltration. Past research has shown that earthworm castings are enriched in the plant-required nutrients, nitrate and ammonium. Earthworm casts also have been observed to have elevated populations of bacteria involved in nitrogen cycling reactions. This study was done to see how nitrogen cycling bacteria in the lining of the earthworm burrows would affect nitrate concentrations. We found high concentrations of nitrogen cycling bacteria in the soil lining the earthworm burrows. The activities of these bacteria caused the burrow lining to be high in nitrate. The significance of this work lies in the fact that although it may be suspected that the nitrate in the burrow lining is susceptible to leaching, past work indicates that worm burrows transmit a relatively small percentage of the total areal rainfall. Thus, we conclude that most of the inorganic nitrogen formed in the earthworm burrow will not be lost from the rooting zone, but rather it will be available for crop use. These results highlight the importance of earthworms to soil health and should encourage farmers to adopt practices that facilitate the development of earthworm populations.
  Keywords: nutrient use structure organic matter cycling soil quality index nitrogen
IA 50011 FAX: (515)294-8125
Email: Parkin@nstl.gov

ARS Report Number: 0000085188
Approved Date: 1997-09-18

United States Department of Agriculture
National Agricultural Library
Technology Transfer Information Center
For comments and questions, contact ttic@nal.usda.gov
Updated: 1997-09-27

  ©1998 April J. Cleveland for Science Junction, NC State University.

Water What-ifs Water Quality and Nitrates & Phosphates
Water What-ifs Water Quality and Nitrates & Phosphates
   As decomposition of plant and animal material occurs, dissolved oxygen levels decrease and nitrate levels increase. In addition, bacteria break down large protein molecules into ammonia which combines with oxygen to form nitrates and nitrites. Of these, nitrate is usually the most important to consider when determining water quality. Normally only small amounts are found naturally, but an increase in nitrate levels can come from many man-made sources such as septic systems, fertilizer runoff and improperly treated wastewater. As nitrates increase, they act as a plant nutrient and cause an increase in plant growth. As the plant material dies and decomposes, dissolved oxygen levels decrease.
   An increase in nitrates may be followed by an increase in phosphates. As phosphates increase and the growth of aquatic plants is encouraged, algal blooms can occur. With the increase in algae growth and decomposition, the dissolved oxygen levels will decrease.
  The Global Water Sampling Project
Dissolved Oxygen
The Global Water Sampling Project
Dissolved Oxygen
Low DO levels may be found in areas where organic material (dead plant and animal matter) is decaying. Bacteria require oxygen to decompose organic waste, thus, deplete the water of oxygen. Areas near sewage discharges sometimes have low DO levels due to this effect. DO levels will also be low in warm, slow moving waters. Dissolved oxygen
This project is developed and managed by the Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE)
  Is Salty Groundwater in South Florida's Future?

Saskatchewan, Canada


[http://interactive.usask.ca/skinteractive/modules/agriculture/soils/soilfert/soilfert_org.html] Release
 December 11, 2001

   Plants that are 
tolerant of salinity
coconut (Cocos nucifera) the sagu palm, the pepper wine, and species of Dalbergia, Pandanus and Hibiscus tiliaceus. - Mangroves and their Products
Plant Tables
As a general rule, plants that have low drought tolerance will have low salinity tolerance. 
1) [http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/mangroves/mangrove-products.html]
2) Salt Tolerance of Plants [http://www.agric.gov.ab.ca/agdex/500/518-17.html]
3) [http://www.millennium-ark.net/News_Files/INFO_Files/Salinity_Chart.html
4) [http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/crops/00505.html]
The salt tolerance of crop species varies widely: 
Relative Tolerance of Crops to Salinity*1
5) [http://interactive.usask.ca/skinteractive/modules/agriculture/soils/soilman/soilman_sal.html]
Mustard to replace Canola? [http://www.pi.csiro.au/Brochures/FactSheets/Brassicas/mustard.htm]
Sugar Beet [http://www.gla.ac.uk/ibls/BMB/pjd/salinity.html]Keywords:
erucic acid, glucosinolates, heart, synapses nerves, myelin (protective sheath), salt tolerance, Salinity, coconut coir brick good for worm bedding,
  Moderate Canola [http://www.siu.edu/~ebl/leaflets/canola.htm]
  Low tolerance of salinity [http://www.ipipotash.org/presentn/t2000/t2ks10.html] Sugar Cane
  The solution to Saline Soil in Thailand [http://www.ldd.go.th/article/article01.html]
     Farmers can screen salt tolerant crops themselves for growing in saline soil area. They can grow some crops like tomato, garlic, watermelon, luffa, asparagus, lettuce, cowpea, celery, pepper, acacia and cauliflower in medium saline soil.
      For northeast saline soil, farmers have to flood the farm in order to leach salts until the water become pale brown and drain it. Do like this 2-3 times and add organic fertilizer such as compost, animal manure or grow plants like S. Speciosa and Sesbania rostrata to make green manure.

Fur the recyclable wearable

conditions that could make cotton less costly to grow.
keywords: bear deer carcass caching decomposing - Bears are omnivores that eat a large amount of plant mater but protein sources like insects, deer, and fish are relished. Even though bears do not seem to eat rotting flesh they do something called caching (covering the carcass with leaves, twigs, and brush) and will return. It appears that many meat eaters will eat the stomach for the beneficial bacteria and enzymes, these microorganisms help the omnivores digestion. Another parts of the animal (like the fish head) have bones and cartilage that are beneficial to animals that are capable of digesting them.

Cotton is not highly tolerant of soil salinity, has had erosion problems, fertilizer problems and has needed chemicals to help with pests (especially in detrimental conditions) that runoff into water.
Granted earthworms that go down 8 feet into the soil could help keep more of the rainfall and allowing roots to go deeper - no till and earthworms could help rain fall sink in instead of causing erosion - worm castings are great fertilizer - healthier plants require less fertilizer / chemicals ...
  US fur commision many fur animals are scavengers and their [poop] end result of their food requirements are suitable --
food for vermicomposting which could make wearing recycled fish heads look even better.
Many countries have escalating rodent problems and loose much of the grain in fields and storage to rodents.
     ARUSHA, October 2001:
  Dutch Fur [http://www.furcommission.com/news/newsF02y.htm]
 "EU Member States Stand Behind Mink Farmers in the Nederasselt: Four member states of the European Union (France, Spain, Finland, and Greece) have made a formal protest to the European Commission concerning the intention of minister L.J. Brinkhorst to ban mink farming in the Netherlands on moral grounds. The protests result in an automatic delay."
 Netherlands -- E-mail: info@nfe.nl; www.nfe.nl
Piper's comment: considering 
  Rural Industries Research & Development Corporation [http://www.rirdc.gov.au/reports/Ras/01-144sum.html]
Summary of full report
Re-use Potential of Agri-Industry Wastes In the Melbourne / Metropolitan Region Barry Meehan, Jay Maheswaran and Kim Phung November 2001 RIRDC Publication No 01/144 RIRDC Project No RMI-10A
tannery effluents vermiculture
  Waste Management
The C.P. Ramaswami Aiyar Foundation #1, Eldams Road, Alwarpet, Chennai(Madras) 600 018
tannery effluents vermiculture
  Production of Farm Vermi-Compost using Treated Tannery Effluent Water [http://www.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/~macer/india/bii98.html]
Bioethics in India: Proceedings of the International Bioethics Workshop in Madras: Biomanagement of Biogeoresources, 16-19 Jan. 1997, University of Madras; Editors: Jayapaul Azariah, Hilda Azariah, & Darryl R.J. Macer, Copyright Eubios Ethics Institute 1997. http://www.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/~macer/index.html 98. Production of Farm Vermi-Compost using Treated Tannery Effluent Water Lavanya P.G. & J. Venkatakrishnan Agricultural Res.Station , Virinjipuram , N.A.A.Dist. 632104
tannery effluents vermiculture
  Vermiculture and vermicomposting of non-toxic organic solid waste applications in aquaculture. [http://www.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/~macer/india/bii97.html]
Bioethics in India: Proceedings of the International Bioethics Workshop in Madras: Biomanagement of Biogeoresources, 16-19 Jan. 1997, University of Madras; Editors: Jayapaul Azariah, Hilda Azariah, & Darryl R.J. Macer, Copyright Eubios Ethics Institute 1997. http://www.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/~macer/index.html 97. Vermiculture and vermicomposting of non-toxic organic solid waste applications in aquaculture. Arunabha Mitra Aquacultural Engineering section, Agricultural and Food Engineering Dept., Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302
     Vermicasting is a rich source of macro and micronutrients, vitamins, enzymes, antibiotics, growth hormones and immobilised microflora. Vermicompost refers to an organic manure produced by earthworms. It is a mixture of worm castings (faecal excretions), organic material including humus, live earthworms, their cocoons and other organisms. Vermicomposting is an appropriate technique for the disposal of non-toxic solid and liquid organic wastes. It helps in cost effective and efficient recycling of animal wastes (poultry, horse, piggery excreta and cattle dung), agricultural residues and industrial wastes using low energy (Jambhekar,1992).
     Applications of vermiculture and vermicomposting in aquaculture The most common method of solid waste disposal is land spreading which causes pollution of soil as well as surface and ground water resulting in mortality of aquatic organisms. Vermicomposting of wastes controls the pollution of soil and water, thus ensures the survivality and growth of fish, prawn and other aquatic organisms. The application of vermicastings which is a high grade organic fertilizer, to the aquaculture ponds reduces the input cost making the aquaculture production process more profitable and it also helps in controlling the harmful effects of chemical fertilizer application. Deolalikar and Mitra (1996) have used vermicompost prepared from paper mill solid waste for fertilizing aquacultural tanks and found an increase in net primary productivity from 32.08 to 220.83 mgC/m /h. Vermicompost application also showed better growth of rohu fish (Labeo rohita) when compared with other commercially available organic manures (Deolalikar and Mitra, 1997). There is an increasing demand for protein-rich raw materials in fish and other animal feed industry. Fish meal is the main protein component of fish feed. Earthworm is generally used as bait by the anglers. But large scale vermiculture has the potential of supplying earthworm meal as a substitute of fish meal. The earthworm meal contains all the essential amino acids required in fish feed. The methionine and lysine availability are higher than that of fish meal.
     Accumulation of salts in the topsoil as a result of irrigation. 
     Reduces crop growth hence yields. 
     Can be reversed by taking land out of production 
     By applying a large amount of water to flush salts - wasteful 
Fertilization by organic or inorganic mineral fertilizers 
     organic fertilizers: animal manure, green manure (plant derived) and compost. Adds microorganisms, helps retain water, aerates soil. 
Inorganic fertilizers: nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus are added to soil as minerals which do not add to the structure or
water holding capacity of soil. 
Can runoff into streams causing eutrofication of lakes 
productive potential of arid or semiarid land drops by 10% or more. Area becomes more arid. 
Caused by: 
     deforestation without reforestation 
     surface mining without reclamation 
     some irrigation methods 
     farming on marginal land 
     compaction by farm machinery and animals 
results in: 
     worsening drought 
     declining living standards  copy; Aquascope 2000   Tjärnö Marine Biological Laboratory, Strömstad, Sweden
What is eutrofication?
[http://www.vattenkikaren.gu.se/fakta/ovrigt/eutrofie/eutr09e.html ]
  SUDHARA PLUS is a vermiculture concentrate

use Explorer to open these pages


1) and 2) [https://members.tripod.com/eco_logic/twodecades.htm]
2) [https://members.tripod.com/eco_logic/faq.htm]
"SUDHARA PLUS is a tool for effective solid waste management. 1 kg of SUDHARA PLUS can process upto 5 kg of organic waste each day per m2 of land area. This area should have some vegetation because the earthworms need plant roots nearby in order to function. Earthworms also need a supply of rock dust for their food-grinding activity and for pH control. An acidic pH, indicated by acid-loving animals such as ants or rats is a signal to feed the rock dust. 

Rock dust is cheaply available from the local stone crusher. Rock dust is the cheapest source of balanced plant nutrients which are released by the earthworms as per the demand from the plants." 
1) [http://www.indegene.com/bb/ubb/Forum6/HTML/000001.html]
1) [https://members.tripod.com/eco_logic/hospital.htm] image

     Address: Bhawalkar Vermitech Pvt Ltd
     Redirection page to eco_logic on the Tripod server Being able to biodegrade pathogenic medical items. 

Ground up sheet rock from construction jobs is also considered rock dust. Links below.


use Explorer to open these pages

2) [https://members.tripod.com/eco_logic/saline.htm]Being able to take saline water and turn it into drinking water, possible water pathogen reducer as well.
  Drywall Recycling  [http://www.ciwmb.ca.gov/ConDemo/factsheets/Drywall.htm]
As a soil amendment, for worms and moreDrywall is also referred to as gypsum board, wallboard, plasterboard, gypboard, and rock
  Managing Construction and Demolition Debris:

A Guide for Builders, Developers, and Contractors

North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service 1996Landfills and regulations in North Carolina
  Recycling and Land Fills [http://www.emagazine.com/march-april_1997/0397feat1.html]
FEATURE Talking Trash Recycling is Under Attack (By the Usual Suspects), But Its Stunning Successes Outweigh its Modest Setbacks 
By Alice Horrigan and Jim Motavalli
Volume VIII, Number 2 March-April 1997 
  Wonderful Wiggley Worm Recipes and Activities [http://www.yesnet.yk.ca/schools/jackhulland/classes/colberg/worms/]
Grade 4 students have taken their favorite recipes and turned them into gourmet worm recipes, following the study of "How to Eat Fried Worms" by Thomas Rockwell.
"How to Eat Fried Worms" by Thomas Rockwell. ©1973
  How To Eat Fried Worms [http://www.thedalles.k12.or.us/staff/dh/lsprouse/FriedWorms/
Dalles, Oregon -- Dalles School District No. 12
Organic Gardening

     Worms are highly nutritious - an excellent source of protein and can be grown right in your backyard! Who needs to wait for the Hokitika Wild Food Festival to try something completely outlandish!
     Worms can be used for human consumption being 60%–70% protein. They have a unique flavour and added to recipes give a pleasant gourmet change. They can be used for their meat or grounded down and made into worm flour which then can be used for baking.
  Yummy Recipes [http://www.naturewatch.ca/english/wormwatch/cool/recipes.html]
     Earthworm Cookery Although most people use the term insects to refer to all sorts of creatures, it really only applies to a particular animal group: the six-legged arthropods. Earthworms are legless and therefore are not insects.
     Earthworms have received considerable attention in the press recently as an excellent and potentially economical source of human food. From all accounts, they are a nutritious addition to human diets. Besides being high in protein, they are entirely edible, with no bone or gristle to throw away, and their subtle, earthy flavour lends itself well to all sorts of delightful dishes.
      How to Clean and Prepare Earthworms (from Entertaining with Insects, 1976)
Entertaining with Insects, 1976
  Canada Worm Watch [http://www.naturewatch.ca/english/wormwatch/]
NatureWatch.ca is currently being developed. FrogWatch, IceWatch, and WormWatch can be found at the EMANOPS web site.

  A look at why the
Federal Soil Conservation Act of 1935
was passed.

how erosion decreased crop harvests during the 1930's

America's Great
Depression - Timeline
> 1929 with the Stock Market crash, and ended in 1941 with America's entry into World War II.
Coastal San Luis Resource Conservation District
CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS (CCC) IN 1935 SOIL CONSERVATION Work done in Rural Arroyo Grande By Ella Honeycutt
       The devastation caused by erosion, floods and the dust storms of the 1930’s, led to the passage of the Federal Soil Conservation Act of 1935. The Federal legislation enabled states to act locally, and to provide conservation assistance and introduce new farming methods to ranchers, farmers and other landowners. The history books teach about the Dust Bowl in the Midwest but few people today realize the extent of erosion damage to the hillside farmland on the central coast of California.
        The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) and the WPA were very active in Arroyo Grande in 1935 at the bottom of the Depression. A Soil Survey Report prepared by the USDA Soil Conservation Service (SCS) describes the conditions of the eroded land in the Carpenter Canyon-Poorman Canyon area. The CCC was brought into the area to stabilize the hills, which had lost their fertile soil due to erosion and poor farming practices. The CCC camp was located where the Arroyo Grande Women’s Club is today.
--- “Growing sugar peas on the hills near Arroyo Grande started about 1910. During the First World War a boom in agriculture took place on the central coast. High prices caused the available hillside land into use. The mild climate was just right for growing early winter peas for eastern and foreign markets and the high prices reached a peak in 1927–1928. Many small farmers made big profits without a large capital investment. They grew small beans and peas year after year and did not rotate the crops with sugar beets or barley. The decline was very rapid and many fields were left without a cover crop. In 1910 they harvested 500 crates per acre and twenty years later they were lucky to harvest 100 crates per acre,” according to retired SCS District Conservationist, Clark Moore.
keywords: Erosion, Federal Soil Conservation Act of 1935, world War, Mud Slids, Calfornia, saline soil
  Keywords for toxic and non-toxic organisms in the water and on land.

 ** use these keywords to search with, Pfiesteria, dinoflagellates, Aspergillus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Stachybotrys atra, Stachybotrys chartarum (atra), saprophytic, epizootic infections,Chytrid, A. sydowii, chytridiomycosis, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Candida albicans, Neuse - River, Red Tide, Great Lakes plankton, * Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) is capable of producing several toxins including macrocyclic trichothecenes (satratoxins H, G, F, roridin E, verrucarin J, and Trichoverrols A and B). protozoan, water, Florida, GymnodiniumBreve, KareniaBrevis, mycoplasma, Tigris River, Euphrates River, Gulf War, Evaporation, Oil fire, Red Sea,
>Lyngbya majuscula algae blooms in Florida- May 2000
While a variety of this species has been associated with contact dermatitis, "swimmer's itch", in Hawaii, Japan and Australia, there is no evidence that the blooms in Florida are capable of inducing skin irritation or other human health effects. <
>1999 The algae in Tampa Bay has been identified as Lyngbya majuscula, a blue-green algae that is found worldwide. L. majuscula also appears in scientific literature as Microcoleus lyngbyaceus
It is important to distinguish between the blue-green algae, Lyngbya, and a similarly named marine slime mold, Labyrinthula <
, microbes, resource recovery, leachate, Vermicomposting
hypoxic waters
Generally, excess nutrients lead to increased algal production and increased availability of organic carbon within an ecosystem, a process known as eutrophication.
Venice, Italy - Ulva rigida algal
Saline - Soil, Sodic => Of or pertaining to sodium; containing sodium.
Tobacco, peanuts, cotton, Clean Cultivated Fields, Water requirements, salinity tolerance =>
NoTill farming, Erosion, --
salinity tolerance in some crop plants (e.g. barley & sugar beet)
Aerobic vs. Anaerobic activity: Aerobic activity means activity done with oxygen, anaerobic means without oxygen --
aeration, Anaerobic organisms can grow without the presence of oxygen, - Earthworms are bioreactors without the methane.
- probiotics/competitive exclusion
Pollutants >> Eutrophication >>
Municipal wastewater treatment
phytoremediation - a promising new pollution cleanup method using plants.
cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S), plant virus, recombinant DNA,
canola, selenium, toxic cleanup, salt tolerance, poison, erucic acid, tocopherols,
canola oil a common name for low erucic acid rapeseed oil (LEAR oil) (less than 2 percent) and glucosinolates (less than 30 micromoles per gram of oil-free meal).
Two plants in the mustard family are called Canola -- Brassica campestris, called Polish turnip rape, and Brassica napus, known as Argentine rape.
Low phytic acid corn and phytase feed enzymes
synthetic chemical inputs such NPK, pesticides, fungicides, herbicides and insecticides
A product or solution formed by leaching, especially a solution containing contaminants picked up through the leaching of soil.
--Laura's note =>this word is also used in relation to landfills
Bioreactors from Dictionary.com
An apparatus, such as a large fermentation chamber, for growing organisms such as bacteria or yeast that are used in the biotechnological production of substances such as pharmaceuticals, antibodies, or vaccines, or for the bioconversion of organic waste.
Bioreactors, however, are unlike other forms of renewable energy technologies such as conventional methane recovery, ethanol, methanol, and fiber fuel cultivation systems that return nutrients to the soil and often produce animal feed and other beneficial byproducts. Bioreactors are horribly inefficient methane producers. In addition, they produce no feed, fertilizers, fiber or other valuable byproducts. They only produce contaminated garbage-dirt that has to remain in the landfill forever. The methane, in addition, is a dirty fuel in that more methane is lost to the atmosphere than will be recovered since bioreactors, at best, are only 50% efficient.
--Laura's note =>Earthworms are bioreactors without the methane.

To take a asset like a chick or a plant and by taking care of it gains in value.
To supply with capital or investment funds: capitalize a new business.
Of, relating to, or being financial principal, or a principal in a financial transaction.
The entire property of all sorts, belonging to a person, a corporation, or an estate; as, the assets of a merchant or a trading association; -- opposed to liabilities. Note: In balancing accounts the assets are put on the Cr. side and the debts on the Dr. side.
A charge for a loan, usually a percentage of the amount loaned. b.An excess or bonus beyond what is expected or due.

++ From a post on a list, I have not checked these out yet.
fusarium oxysporum was very easy to find on google.com, pleospora papavarecea not found, pleospora found, pleospora papav not found, pleospora var ecea not found. Lots of pleospora "var." variants found.

  When Your Child is too Sick to go to School
    Dr. Sally Robinson and Dr. Keith Bly. Robinson of UTMB.
[ http://www.utmbhealthcare.org/Health%20Source/
    School-aged kids have six to eight colds per year, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. Caused by viruses, not by damp weather, colds spread through the air (via cough and sneeze droplets) and by direct contact (touching people and contaminated objects, such as doorknobs, toys and telephone receivers).
  "Alexander fleming and the discovery of penicillin in 1928"

"Alexander fleming and the discovery of penicillin"
"Penicillin: why do several people share the credit for it?
  Leading the charge Liu directs fight against resistant bacteria

Vol. 1 No. 3 Faculty and Staff Summer 2001

19 January 2001 College of Pharmacy at UT Austin
But just four years after drug companies launched mass-production of penicillin in 1943, microbes began surfacing that could resist it.

Antibiotic resistance spreads quickly. Between 1979 and 1987, for example, only 0.02 percent of pneumococcus strains were penicillin-resistant. A report in The Journal of the American Medical Association in June 1994 indicated that 6.6 percent of pneumococcus strains were antibiotic resistant. In 1992, 13,300 hospital patients died of bacterial infections against which the current regimen of antibiotics proved ineffective.
from Plantation, Florida -- started in 1987
CHADD has it's starts from meetings in Plantation, Florida a town about 5 miles from Ft. Laurderdale and close to the Florida everglades.

["Let's talk a bit about CHADD, and how that was started. Perhaps you can give me an anecdote, because I have no idea how this all began. Who thought of CHADD, and how did it begin?
      CHADD started in 1987 in southern Florida. It was the result of an effort by a couple of parents and myself to provide information to people in our community about ADHD. You see, at the time, there were thousands of research articles in scientific journals about attention deficit disorders. But parents were totally confused. School districts knew nothing about ADHD. And there were only maybe three or four books written about ADHD that were available to people.
      So we got the idea of having a little support group meeting--an informational meeting, if you will--at a local private school, in Plantation. And we were surprised that over a hundred people showed up, and fit into a tiny little classroom to learn about ADHD. So we said, "Well, it seems like there's a need for this," and we decided to have a second meeting, in a hotel a month later. And 200 parents show up. Gradually, more and more people found out about these meetings, and we decided to write a little newsletter, and we gave a name to the organization. The name was Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Disorders, CHADD. "] .
  Florida [http://www.netstate.com/states/geography/fl_geography.htm]
Florida is 500 miles long and 160 miles wide at its most distant points.
The Mean Elevation of the state of Florida is only 100 feet above sea level.

Habitats Water. It's as plentiful as sunshine in the Sunshine State. Surrounded on three sides by ocean, no part of the Florida peninsula is more than 60 miles from salt water. Florida's vast landscape encompasses 58,560 square miles, 4,308 of which are water. Waves lap at 1,000 miles of the state's most famous attraction -- its beaches. Join us as we celebrate natural Florida by exploring water's precious role in our lives and in the state's fragile ecosystems.
  Antibiotics kill probiotics a cause of diarrhea
[animal antibiotics US since 1949 and Britain since 1953.] [other causes of Diarrhea]
Diarrhea is incompletly digested food potential
         of increased pathogens instead of manure
         that has benificial microorganisms
1978 approximate date that Linda McCartney
         became a vegitarian
1980 PETA was founded
1986 April 26th -- Chernobyl
1986 a major red tide
1986 Sept to March 1987 Florida to 79mi off
1987 start of CHADD in Florida
1989 Linda McCartney's cook book but it was'nt
         until 1991 that she started veg meals
1990 IDEA
1991 intensive lobbing added ADHD to IDEA
1991-1994 1million from Ciba-Geigy to CHADD
1993+ HMO's deny specialists for kids
1993 Antibiotics use slows drastically
1993 Pfiesteria - toxic aerosol - N. Carolina
1995 PBS - Merrow Report
1996 a major red tide
1996 Ciba-Geigy / Sandoz form Novartis
1996 NAMI jumps for pharmesudical money too
1997 Salton Sea - Calf. - Sonny Bono
1997 Worm Gin TM prototype, built in 1997
         vertical composting, Florida
99 Tipper advocates medication for children

Saline Soil worse threat than global warming
Salt threatens tobacco, cotton, peanuts,

Fresh water goes salty
Worm recipes as a replacment for meat
Deer teeth by 9-1/2yrs worn close or to gum line
No Till farming -- EarthWorms
99 low water Gaza aquifer, Tigris and Euphrates
America into mental hypercontriacs
Learning Styles
5 Factors of Education
Ciba-Geigy gave substansal contributions to CHADD, this was made public in the USA by PBS 1 PBS 2 airing the Merrow Report October 20, 1995
By 1996 Ciba-Geigy had merged with Sandoz to create the company called Novartis and since neither Clinton, the FDA or anyone else had made enough of an issue about the contributions by 1996 The National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) seems to have jumped on the band wagon by taking money for pharmesudical companys too, Eli Lilly and Co. - makers of Prozac and Novartis makers of Ritalin.
[ http://www.resultsproject.net/writing_on_the_wall.html ]
So, once they drum down US education and American Democracy to the point that enough businesses and educated people leave America who will be running America and will they finally make the fact that pharmesudicals pollute the water public?  Same control even without drugs?
  Deer Teeth HOW TO TELL THE AGE OF DEER [http://www.conservation.state.mo.us/hunt/deer/age/] img
Deer, Too, Get Long in the Tooth [http://www.montana.edu/wwwpb/reso/agedeer.html]
Whitetail Ageing How to Age Deer? [http://www.kerrlake.com/deer/teeth.htm] img
.5-1/2; Years and Older: In most hunted deer populations, less than two percent of the animals are more than five years of age. Accurately aging these deer by tooth wear is usually more of a guessing game than a science. In general, deer close to 5-1/2; years of age will show considerable wear on the premolars, and the first cusp of the fourth cheek tooth (first molar) will be dished out or show signs of "cupping."
9-1/2; Years: By 9-1/2; years, all cheek teeth are cupped and worn nearly to the gum line.
  Alliance For The Chesapeake Bay
Bay Journal
The Chesapeake Bay Newspaper
Vol 8 - Number 10 January - February 1999

"...had little, or no fat in the body cavity and exhibited signs of poor nutrition and starvation; approximately 12 percent of these fish had visual external lesions, ulcers or sores.

"Atlantic menhaden are an extremely important link in the coastal marine food chain, transferring enormous amounts of nutrients into forage biomass, while at the same time improving water quality - they have the potential to consume up to 25 percent of the Bay's nitrogen."
Research examines ecological impact of menhaden
By Jim Price
      The high percentage of Chesapeake Bay striped bass in poor nutritional condition raises concern about the declining forage base for all predator species using the Bay, including the common loon. During 1997 and 1998, more than 60 percent of the striped bass from Maryland's portion of the Bay that were examined by the Chesapeake Bay Acid Rain Foundation (CBARF) had little, or no fat in the body cavity and exhibited signs of poor nutrition and starvation; approximately 12 percent of these fish had visual external lesions, ulcers or sores.
     This ulcerative dermatitis in Bay striped bass was first reported to the Maryland Department of Natural Resources in September 1994, after poor recruitment for the 1993 year class of Atlantic menhaden within the
Chesapeake. During the fall and winter, when the water temperatures decrease and forage becomes more available, the condition of the striped bass population improves, with most of the lesions and sores healing, indicating that the chronic outbreak of various skin anomalies may be related to poor nutrition coupled with peak late summer water temperatures. The CBARF is working with officials from the University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Chesapeake Bay Program, Maryland DNR, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service to investigate what effects reduced numbers of Atlantic menhaden have on the diet and health of fish and bird populations in the Bay and along the coast.
     Atlantic menhaden are an extremely important link in the coastal marine food chain, transferring enormous amounts of nutrients into forage biomass, while at the same time improving water quality - they have the potential to consume up to 25 percent of the Bay's nitrogen. No other fish has the capability to replace this unique species. Historically, during their residence in the Bay, a healthy population of Atlantic menhaden had the capacity, in less than two days, to filter a volume of water equal to the entire Chesapeake Bay.
  Fish Lesions in The Chesapeake Bay: Pfiesteria-like Dinoflagellates and Other Etiologies

Maryland Medical Journal (37)3:106-112 [1998]

Andrew S. Kane, M.S., Ph.D.
David Oldach, M.D.
Renate Reimschuessel, V.M.D, Ph.D.

[Shipton's note: if these fish were human, one might think that they had d
     The gross lesions observed on menhaden collected from the Chicamacomico River are consistent with lesions previously described from fish collected from other environmental kills (11,12). Although there was a prevalence of lesions near the anus, the location of lesions on the fish was variable. The extent of the lesions ranged from an area of reddening to deep penetrating ulcers (Figure 1). The annular lesion at the base of the dorsal fin noted on the striped bass in the present study appeared similar to lesions observed on Pfiesteria-exposed hybrid striped bass (M. saxatilis x M. chrysops) as described by Burkholder et al. (3).
     Three potentially toxic Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates (Pfiesteria piscicida, Gyrodinium galatheanum, Cryptoperidiniopsis spp.) have been identified from the Chicamacomico River in 1997 (13). Limited laboratory experiments with striped bass exposed to a sublethal concentration of Pfiesteria toxin demonstrated chronic ulcer initiation (14). So far, however, there has been no field validation to definitively demonstrate ulcerative lesion initiation due to exposure to toxic dinoflagellates.
...To date, there is no evidence that live fish with lesions harbor Pfiesteria-like organisms or their toxin(s). Further, there are no current data to support that these fish lesions are a source of infection for human dermal pathologies (as described by Shoemaker (21) and Lowitt (22)). From a more general perspective, however, whole (healthy) fish have been known to cause acute contact dermatitis in humans and asthma-like symptoms (23,24). It appears that some human hypersensitivity reactions may be related to a glycoprotein component of the outer protective mucus coat covering fish epithelium (25,26).
  1996 Pfiesteria

JoAnn Burkholder
Howard Glasgow

1993 -- 1996
Sunday, September 1, 1996
Scientists track the 'phantom' By TONY BARTELME Of The Post and Courier staff
Howard Glasgow and JoAnn Burkholder
In 1993, the year Howard Glasgow "went down," as his colleagues say, he and Burkholder knew as much as anyone about pfiesteria (pronounced fee-steer-ee-uh). In fact, several years before, it was Burkholder and researchers at N.C. State's veterinary school who discovered it. Ed Noga, a fish pathologist, and a grad student, Steve Smith, walked into their lab one morning and found the fish belly up. Noga put more fish in, but they died too.

In January 1993, she poured samples into beakers the size of an egg shell. It was a tricky operation. "I was pouring it right up against my face. I was doing that for about four hours. I can tell you that I was very lucid when I walked in the lab, but I don't remember much for about eight days afterward."

"The trouble was that there were no federal regulations or guidelines on working with toxic phytoplankton," Burkholder said.
  Neuse River

For hog Lagoons - seems as if vericomposting could help here.
Leavenworth, Stuart. "Coastal playground turned killing ground."
Copyright © 1996 The News and Observer Publishing Company Raleigh, North Carolina
  [...Because of these natural conditions, scientists believe the Neuse and other such waters probably have always suffered from seasonal bouts of dead fish.
      "If there were no humans on the East Coast, I'm convinced that there would still be fish kills," said Don Stanley, a marine ecologist at East Carolina University. "Estuaries are not always friendly places for fish, and humans have nothing to do with that."
      Even so, Stanley and other scientists agree that the Neuse is becoming more unfriendly as cities and farms pump nutrients, particularly nitrogen, into the river. Following heavy rains, these chemicals collect in the river's shallow, wide basin. Then, in the warmer months, they cause algae to explode -- much like a teaspoon of yeast dropped into a bowl of warm water. When the algae die, they set off a feeding frenzy of bacteria that suck oxygen from the water.
      "Other coastal regions - from Hong Kong to Venice to the Chesapake Bay - Have suffered from similar problems. Maryland and Virginia are spending millions on a campaign to clean up the Chesapeake, and in Florida, state and federal regulators are trying to control fertilizer runoff into the Everglades National Park." "But Paerl, the UNC marine scientist, noted that overfertilized waters can breed many kinds of toxic algae and bacteria."]
New articles by James Eli Shiffer and Chuck Liddy
[Shipton's note:
The Neuse seems to be able to somewhat recover and it may be because the the seven springs that run into it or the wild rainfalls that some elicite some people to term huricanes, still what some people know those storms for is the huricane parties that have happened when the storm is over.
The amount of research that has been done for these articles is great.]
  1997 Congressional Report December 8, 1997 http://www.cnie.org/nle/mar-23.html
Congressional Research Service Report for Congress Pfiesteria and Related Harmful Blooms: Natural Resource and Human Health Concerns -- [http://cnie.org/NLE/CRSreports/Marine/mar-23.cfm]

Center for Applied Aquatic Ecology

Images of Pfiesteria Piscicida

Welcome to the Center for Applied Aquatic Ecology Website ... of Zoospore DNA Content and Population DNA Distribution in Cultured Pfiesteria spp. (Pyrrhophyta). Publications Page 12/24/01- Graduate Studies in Aquatic ... Description: Specializes in research on the nutritional ecology and toxic activity of the toxic dinoflagellate...
Senior Staff
JoAnn M. Burkholder, Ph.D.
Howard B. Glasgow Jr., Ph.D.

Nora J. Deamer-Melia, MS
Robert Reed, Ph.D.
Cheng Zhang, Ph.D.
  Dr. Karen Steidinger of the
Florida Marine Research Institute
Florida Red Tide Changes its Name!!!
Recently, the Florida red tide Gymnodinium breve, or G. breve was reclassified in the taxonomy of dinoflagellates. Its new name is Karenia brevis, or K. brevis. Karenia was chosen in honor of Dr. Karen Steidinger, a prominent red tide scientist from the Florida Marine Research Institute in St. Petersburg, FL. Our congratulations go to Dr. Steidinger for this honor. We will be updating our web pages for the change to K. brevis. Please forgive us if you occasionally still see a G. breve!

keywords: Gymnodinium breve,
Karenia brevis, dinoflagellates, red tide
  Marine Poisons: Life and Death Natural marine biotoxins can hurt and help us. By Karen Steidinger
Florida Marine Research Institute

History of the Florida Marine Research Institute
FMRI History, Part 1 The Florida Marine Research Institute began as a small field station founded by the University of Florida in March 1955 at the Maritime Training Base on Bayboro Harbor in St. Petersburg. The laboratory was established to conduct research on red tides, which had plagued Florida's west coasts during the 1940's and 1950's.
     Ciguatera is more famous in Pacific waters; however, in Florida, the Red Tide organism, Karenia brevis, a one-celled dinoflagellate, and shellfish exposed to blooms of this organism, reportedly have a ciguatera-like toxin that can cause human suffering. Ciguatera poison is thought to originate at the base of the food chain and in Pacific waters it has been traced to toxic blue-green algae that are eaten by small fishes and in turn are eaten by larger fishes. It is through the food chain that the toxin is taken in and accumulated.
     The most toxic marine poison known is 160,000 times more potent than cocaine and is produced by several dinoflagellates common to the shores of Washington, Canada and Alaska. They produce a toxin known scientifically as saxitoxin or paralytic shellfish poison (PSP). The name saxitoxin has its origin from the Alaska butter clam, Saxidomas, which has caused shellfish poisoning in humans. Again, the association and resultant human distress is through the food chain.
...One product of marine seaweeds, although not of a poisonous nature, deserves attention because of its potential anti-tumor and anti-leukemia activities in animals exposed to radiation. Sodium alginates of seaweeds tend to inhibit the absorption of radioactive strontium in the blood stream and bone tissue of rats by 75
...To cite examples of potential uses for poisons or toxins often involves using the effect of the poison as the cure. For example ciguatera poison, which affects the neuromotor system, can relax spasms when administered in small doses. Another poison isolated from an electric eel shows potential as an antidote for pesticide poisoning.
Status of the Fishery -- 1994*** *** Report prepared for 74th legislature, January 1995. Reflects regulations in place at the time.
Nature has also played a major role in fish mortality during the last twelve years. The freeze of winter 1983-84, the red tide of 1986 and the freezes of February and December 1989 were some of the worst natural disasters affecting saltwater fish in Texas' recent history. Emergency regulations were adopted immediately following the 1983-84 freeze to help rebuild the resource.
Toxic Tides: Planning is Coastal Managements' Best Prevention
"A lot of states never experienced a red tide before the last 10 years. It's been a very alarming decade." Carmelo Tomas, Florida Marine Research Institute
     The State of Florida, which has documented harmful algal blooms since the 1940s, estimates the economic impact of just one bloom in the millions. "If even one area of Florida's coast is affected by a red tide bloom, the impact can be millions of dollars for the tourism and fishing industry that year," says Carmelo Tomas, research scientist for the Florida Department of Environmental Protection's Florida Marine Research Institute. "It wouldn't take much for a state to sit down and look at what attracts visitors to their state and what the impact of a red tide would mean."
     The most common cause of toxic red tides in Texas and Florida is Gymnodinium breve, a marine dinoflagellate. Florida has experienced a Gymnodinium breve red tide 23 out of the past 24 years. This species of red tide has been experienced at least once by all the Gulf of Mexico states and has been transported up the Atlantic coast all the way to North Carolina.
     "A lot of states never experienced a red tide before the last 10 years. It's been a very alarming decade," Tomas says. "The impression is that red tide is spreading and becoming more common, not only in the U.S., but on a global scale."
      Texas was caught off guard in 1986 when the state experienced its first Gymnodinium breve bloom in 30 years. According to Dave Buzan, chief of the Texas Parks and Wildlife Coastal Conservation Branch, when the bloom occurred there was "almost a complete loss of historic perspective in the state about red tide and how to respond. It took a long time, relatively speaking, for us to understand that what we had was a red tide incident going on."
     For more information on the Texas Red Tide Contingency Plan, contact Cindy Contreras at (512) 912-7095, or e-mail her at cindy.contreras@tpwd.state.tx.us. For more information on red tide research and planning in Florida, contact Karen Steidinger at (727) 896-8626, or e-mail steidinger_k@dep.state.f1.us. For more information on national red tide efforts, point your browser to www.redtide.whoi.edu/hab/.
Red Tide by Tony Reisinger Cameron County Marine Extension Agent

last update 16 Oct 2000 hockaday@panam.edu)
     Discolored water and dead fish in the Gulf of Mexico indicated something was mysteriously wrong. The date of this observation was 1530 aboard a Spanish vessel. This is the first reported incident of what may have been red tide in the gulf. We've had over a dozen blooms in Texas the last 60 years. Most of them have been minor compared to those in 1935 and 1986. The first documented Texas outbreak was in 1935 when a massive fish kill accompanied an aerosol that caused coughing, sneezing and watery red eyes in September off Corpus Christi. The fish kill associated with that incident was much greater than the 1986 occurrence which is estimated to have taken over 22 million fish. In 1935 people speculated the dead fish and noxious gases were the result of an underwater volcano in the gulf. It was not until 1947 when scientists figured the event was caused by a small single cell microorganism or dinoflagellate called Gymnodinum breve. When conditions are right, it can multiply to enormous numbers sufficient enough to discolor water, kill fish and release an irritating aerosol into the air. The organism is one of two species that cause red tides in Texas waters but the only one that produces an aerosol.
     One thing we are sure of is the red tide resulting from this small microorganism has a definite impact on fish and people. This is because of a neurotoxin present in the cells called brevetoxin which is actually a soup of five different toxins. When red tide cells burst in surf or over a fishes gills, this toxin is released and available for uptake into a fishes bloodstream via gills, or into the air via water particles (aerosol) released by waves. In a fish the toxin is deadly and cell concentrations of 250 cells in one milliliter (1/30 of an ounce) of water kill fish. Wave action, wind and cell concentrations determine the strength of the aerosol and its effect on people. Concentrations of 400 per milliliter in heavy surf with moderate wind can be just as irritting as cell counts of 40,000 cells per milliliter in light surf. and little wind. People with asthma should avoid the aerosol since their condition can be aggravated. Contact dermatitis has been reported as a symptom of exposure to red tide. Sore throat, coughing, sneezing and watery or itchy eyes are the most common symptoms.
Fish Health in the Chesapeake Bay
Harmful Algal Blooms

University System of Maryland
Extracted from: Donald F. Boesch, Donald A. Anderson, Rita A. Horner, Sandra E. Shumway,Patricia A. Tester and Terry E. Whitledge. 1997. Harmful Algal Blooms in Coastal Waters: Options for Prevention, Control and Mitigation. NOAA Coastal Ocean Program, Decision Analysis Series No. 10, Special Joint Report with the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, February 1997.
Throughout the Gulf of Mexico and the U.S. South Atlantic Bight, G. breve is found in low background concentrations (1-1,000 cell/l) except in areas off the west Florida and Texas coasts where local circulation may play a role in concentrating cells. While G. breve blooms have occurred in many different areas within the Gulf of Mexico, from Yucatan in the south, along the Tamaulipas and Texas coasts, and recently to Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana waters, they are most frequent along the west coast of Florida. Blooms there are especially frequent from Clearwater to Sanibel Island, occurring in 21 of the last 22 years. These blooms on the southwest Florida shelf served as a source for cells inoculating the U.S. South Atlantic Bight (Florida east coast and North Carolina) in 1987-88 (Tester et al. 1991).
Captain's Logbook

keywords: 1986 red tide florida ft lauderdale
Red Tide May Have Been Ancient Killer Researchers at the University of Florida's Museum of Natural History report that the thousands of seabird bones found fossilized in 1989 near Sarasota may have been killed by a red tide. The birds, including 137 cormorants, died 2 million to 2.5 million years ago and researchers believe they were poisoned by a red tide that sent toxic algae through the local food chain. A key piece of evidence pointing to red tide as the cause of death was the tens of thousands of microscopic spheres found in the sediment containing the fossils. The spheres are actually shells that protect algae while they are in hibernation on the seafloor. In this case, the shells are from a type of algae that is known to produce red tides.
  photo: taken on September 12, 1995 at North Lido Beach by Robert Myers [http://www.mote.org/~mhenry/rtchrono.phtml]
shows the beach lined with dead fish from a red tide
  2B. RED TIDES AND OTHER ALGAE [http://www.lib.noaa.gov/edocs/synthesis/e2ba2.htm]
294. Pierce, R.H. 1986. Red tide (Ptychodiscus brevis) toxin aerosols: A review. Toxicon 24 (10): 955-965. This review summarizes current knowledge of the characterization, effect, and production of red tide toxin aerosols, with emphasis on the Florida red tide organism, Ptychodiscus brevis. Insight into the chemical characterization and toxic effects of aerosolized toxins is provided from investigations of toxins extracted from natural blooms and from laboratory cultures. The production of aerosolized toxins is examined through studies of jet drop aerosol formation from bursting bubbles. Available information suggests that aerosolized red tide toxins may be the same chemicals as those extracted from laboratory cultures, with one of the toxins having a greater respiratory effect than others.
301. Tester, P.A. and Fowler, P.K. 1990. Brevetoxin contamination of Mercenaria and Crassostrea virginica: A management issue. Fourth International Conference on Toxic Marine Phytoplankton, Lund (Sweden), 26-30 Jun. 1989. In: Toxic Marine Phytoplankton. Graneli, E., Sundstroem, B., Edler, L., Anderson, D.M. (ed.). pp. 499-503. The first red tide (Ptychodiscus brevis) bloom ever recorded along the North Carolina coast was both massive and persistent. Between 2 Nov. 1987 and 21 Jan. 1988, 145,280 hectares of shellfish harvesting areas were closed. This caused severe economic loss to coastal communities and was especially devastating to the clam fishery. The authors examine factors affecting the toxicity of clams and oysters in the field and comment on existing guidelines which govern the reopening of the shellfish harvesting areas after a red tide bloom.
  Global Climate Change Affecting the Florida Everglades:
Anthropogenic Causes for Dis This topic submitted by John Terpin ( jterps@usa.net ) on 5/1/01
]Results: Overview
The Florida Everglades are one of the most unique wetland areas in North America.
Historically, they used to be fifty miles wide, and extend from Lake Okeechobee
southward 100 miles to the southern tip of the Florida peninsula. In 1947, the
southern most portion of the Everglades was established by Congress as the
Everglades National Park to help protect and preserve this unique area. The
Seminole Indians called the Everglades Pahhayokee or "grassy waters," since
there is an almost unnoticeable sheet flow of fresh water beneath a sea of sawgrass
prairies traveling south, which empties into the Florida Bay and the Gulf waters.
Only a few inches deep and supplied solely by the rain that falls on it, this natural
water supply is the lifeline of the Everglades which supports rare and endangered
species of plants and animals, including the American alligator and Florida panther.
Everglades National Park contains 1.5 million acres and is located just to the west
of the densely populated city of Miami, and within close proximity of Ft. Lauderdale,
and West Palm Beach. Over the last few decades, the development of South Florida
has pitted the people and the Everglades as competitors for a finite water supply
which has already been reduced dramatically from extensive canal and levee
systems designed for flood control and agricultural use
  Still Making a Splash
After 35 years, more than 2,000 graduates and millions of dollars in research, the Department of Marine and Environmental Systems (DMES) has made a difference in Florida and around the country.

keywords: Global Distiation,
African sandstorms dust from these sandstorms can be in the US within a day.
Student-run research holds equal importance to faculty research. For example, students monitoring air quality are interested in a link between African dust and red tide. “Most people wouldn’t even think that we’d be affected by a sandstorm in the Sahara, but students working at our air-quality monitoring station have shown us that the atmosphere is a global concern,” said Maul.
  Maryland Sea Grant:
Pfiesteria Biology

red tide
Gymnodinium breve
Karenia breve
Pfiesteria piscicida and Pfiesteria-like Organisms
Pfiesteria Biology
The release of bioactive substances (that may be toxic) by Pfiesteria appears to differ from many "red tide" organisms. Common red tide dinoflagellates, such as Karenia brevis (formally Gymnodinium breve) release endotoxins when their fragile cells are disrupted by turbulance. Pfiesteria appears to release exotoxins, and based on laboratory studies, JoAnn Burkholder and colleagues argue that Pfiesteria releases toxins more proactively to stun prey items. Other studies have demonstrated that Pfiesteria-like organisms are attracted to fish and can attach to their skin. In large numbers these dinoflagallates may be capable of causing severe mechanically stress to fish as well.
red tide
Gymnodinium breve
Karenia breve
Marine Biotoxins Program
Karenia brevis
Characterization of Algicidal Bacteria Toxic to Red Tide Algae
  June 1999
National Assessment Of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABHRCA)
developed for The National Science And Technology Council Committee On Environment And Natural Resourcs Task Force On Harmful Algal Blooms And Hypoxia Draft
June 1999
  Swedish EPA [http://www.internat.environ.se/index.php3 Start >> Pollutants >> Eutrophication >> This doc.  --   Municipal wastewater treatment
  Letter from Environmental Defense and Concerned Scientists Calling for Action on the Polluted Dead Zone in the Gulf of Mexico April 12, 2001 [http://environmentaldefense.org/documents/122_DeadZone_letter.htm]
     The Dead Zone is caused by excessive nutrients -- particularly nitrogen - that pollute the waters in the Gulf of Mexico downstream from the Mississippi River, triggering excess growth of algae. When the algae die and decompose, dissolved oxygen levels plunge. The resulting condition known as "hypoxia" creates an area in which few organisms can survive. In recent years, the Dead Zone has grown in area to more than 20,000 km2, an area equivalent in size to the State of New Jersey.
     Many of these improvements will be addressed in upcoming pieces of legislation, including the Farm Bill, Conservation Reserve Program, Wetlands Reserve Program, Environmental Quality Incentives Program, Swampbuster, CZMA, and 404 program reauthorization.
  Are the World's Fisheries Doomed?
The Pulitzer Prize Winners 1997
     THE DEAD SEA Is it possible to kill 7,000 square miles of the Gulf of Mexico? Alarmed scientists are beginning to think it is more than a possibility; it's increasingly likely. Already, the dead zone, a seasonal area rendered almost lifeless byvast amounts of pollution pumped into the Gulf of Mexico from the Mississippi River, is expanding. Without action, it may become permanent.
     Fertilizer, sewage brew dead zone By Mark Schleifstein, Staff writer
Day Two: Monday, March 25, 1996
Fertililizer, sewage brew dead zone

Fish could be bad for your health

Toxic wastes render fish infertile
  National Ocean Service | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | U.S. Department of Commerce National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Assessment HYPOXIA IN THE GULF OF MEXICO
Generally, excess nutrients lead to increased algal production and increased availability of organic carbon within an ecosystem, a process known as eutrophication.
extra link [http://www.accessnoaa.noaa.gov/may0301/happenings.html]
Either flee or perish is the fate of animals living in a smothering layer near the bottom of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Stretching for about 7,000 square miles off of Louisiana's coast, this hypoxic, or dead zone, lacks oxygen because of pollutants flowing into the gulf from the Mississippi River. Anything that can't move out eventually dies. The size of the zone fluctuates. Right now, it's the size of New Jersey. {keywords: mississippi zone size rhode island }
  “A Brain In The Gut.” NISE. [Online] Retrieved December 4, 2000. [http://whyfiles.org/026fear/physio1.html]
(Note: Two brains are better than one, especially if you're hungry)
  Gershon, Michael D. “The Enteric Nervous System: A Second Brain.” (1999.) McGraw-Hill. [Online] [http://www.hosppract.com/issues/1999/07/gershon.htm]
(Note: Once dismissed as a simple collection of relay ganglia, the enteric nervous system is now recognized as a complex, integrative brain in its own right.)
  Sobel, Rachel K. “The wisdom of the gut.”
April 3, 2000 [Online] Retrieved December 4, 2000
[Note: In 1917 A Gernam scientist Paul Trendelenburg found out about a self-contained, self-regulating nervous system that operates independently of the cranial brain or spinal cord, embedded in the wall of the gut. By the year 2000 it was found out that there are mast cells embedded in the lining of the gut, and that the gut brain has at least 30 neurochemicals that are the same as the ones in the crainial brain. IBS is not imagined, or a psychosomatic cranial mental problem but can be caused by the “little brain” causing chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, and irregular bowel movements to the nerves or little brain in the gut. ] [For reasons that still mystify researchers today, the stunning results of this experiment went into hibernation for nearly half a century and are only now receiving fresh validation. Indeed, no one in medicine paid attention again until a fledgling neurobiologist began touting its clinical value in 1965. "The idea that the gut can be operating its own nervous system was shocking," recalls Michael Gershon, now chair of the department of anatomy and cell biology at Columbia University and author of The Second Brain, a 1998 account of the acceptance of this scientific idea. Since the 1980s, Gershon's colleagues have zealously embraced the notion of "the little brain in the gut," as it's affectionately known. "What Mother Nature had done, rather than packing all of those neurons in the big brain in the skull and sending long lines to the gut, is distribute the microcomputer, the little brain, right along with the gut," says Jackie Wood, a neurobiologist at Ohio State University.] Printed 2 pgs. (Note: Those butterflies in your stomach are not just in your mind)
  Stegosaurus' Second Brain [http://www.arts-letters.com/dino2/ency/DINOTHRY04.html]
For many years it was believed that Stegosaurus, which had a walnut-sized brain in its head, had a second brain in its tail that was responsible for "hindquarters" thinking.
  Dinosaur Breath by John G. Cramer [http://www.npl.washington.edu/AV/altvw27.html]
Alternate View Column AV-27 Keywords: cretaceous, air, oxygen, amber, quetzalcotalus, pterosaur Published in the July-1988 issue of Analog Science Fiction & Fact Magazine; This column was written and submitted 12/5/87 and is copyrighted © 1987, John G. Cramer. All rights reserved. No part may be reproduced in any form without the explicit permission of the author. At a meeting of the Geological Society of America held last Fall in Phoenix, Robert Brenner of Yale University and Gary Landis of the U. S. Geological Survey reported the results of a QMS analysis of ancient air bubbles trapped in amber. They obtained a remarkable result. The atmosphere of the Earth 80 million years ago was discovered to have 50% more oxygen than modern air. Brenner and Landis found that for all gas samples taken from amber 80 million years old the oxygen content ranged between 25% to 35% and averaged about 30% oxygen. Cretaceous air was supercharged with oxygen. Seems as there was 50% more oxygen in the atmosphere 80 million years ago. With samples from amber ranging from 25% to 35% oxygen And averaging about 30% the
  *Bacteria - Sexually Recombiant* Windstosser, Karl. "Prof. Dr. Gunther Enderlein Polymorphic Symbionts as Potential Cofactors in Cancer Processes." (1997) [Online] Retrieved January 31, 2000 [http://www.explorepub.com/articles/enderlein1.html ]
[Note: Mori (1910) supported the idea of sexual recombination of bacteria, Enderlein extended this about 1918, and Lederberg - Taumg - and Hayes won a Nobel Prize in 1958 for proving sexual recombination.] [fungus - the black-spored mold Aspergillus niger van Tieghen, which, in its entire polymorphism and phase-dependent pathology, is the tuberculosis germ. ] [Prof. Dr. Gunther Enderlein]

My take on this is that – an individual mother that uses cloth dipers is also paying the city she lives in for whatever power and water is used, by buying the disposables she is giving the manufacturing money and the utility money to another “entity” that may not even bank in the city that the manufacturing plant is in. Diaper links with the hazards that disposables can have are below.

The ecological debate: cloth vs. disposable
So in the 1980s, the ecological debate began. As the pro-cotton crowd pointed to the extreme numbers trees and plastics being used to make disposables, disposable diaper companies brought up the pesticide use in growing cotton. (although unbleached, organic cotton diapers are now available.) When the disposable companies mentioned that pollution is created in harvesting and transporting cotton to be made into diapers, the pro-cotton crowd pointed out that pollution is created in the manufacturing of disposables and their transport to the stores. And, when the disposable companies stated that human waste of babies was dumped into the local water supply through laundering, cotton proponents replied that laundered baby human waste goes where adult human waste goes: into the sewage system (which currently is our best choice of breaking down municipal waste and reusing our water resource) And what about the water used to launder cotton diapers? The amount of water to wash diapers is about the same as it is for a potty trained child or adult flushing the toilet.

Diapers! Disposable or Cotton? Plus… How to set up a cloth diaper system [http://www.ecobaby.com/cloth.htm] Your baby will spend about 25,000 hours in diapers and need about 6,000 diaper changes during the first years of life. Your decision to use disposable or cloth diapers, will have a great impact on your baby’s comfort and health, and on your peace of mind and finances. The 90’s cloth diaper systems are so easy to use (no soaking, no pins).

Diaper Safari [http://www.diapersafari.com/clothdiaper.htm]

Mother-ease --about diapers
EcoMall -- THE JOY OF CLOTH DIAPERS [http://www.motherease.com/infoB.html]

[http://www.ecomall.com/greenshopping/motherc2.htm] Sodium polyacrylate is the same substance that was removed from tampons in 1985 because of its link to toxic shock syndrome. 7) No studies have been done on the long-term effects of this chemical being in contact with a baby's reproductive organs 24 hours a day for upwards of two years.

Position Papers: Sustainable Agriculture Persistent Organic Pollutants & Reproductive Health [http://www.earthsummit2002.org/wcaucus/Caucus%20Position%20Papers/
  The Environmental Health Clearinghouse

     Repellents: Ants can be repelled by vinegar, cayenne pepper, citric extracts, bone meal, cinnamon, cream of tartar, salt, and perfume. You will have to keep trying different repellents to find the one your ants aren't willing to tolerate. Place lines of the selected repellent at points of entry and at various points along their path.
      Insecticides: There are two ways to kill ants. The first is to dehydrate them by laying out piles of instant grits ( a corn product usually located in the cereal section of the grocery store) at the point of entry and along their trail. They will think of the grits as a food source and consume the pellets. The grits will in turn absorb moisture from the ant's body, thus killing it (instant grits are specially formulated to absorb water more rapidly that regular grits, thus they are more effective). The second method to kill ants is to feed them a mixture of 1 part active dry yeast, 2 parts molasses, and 1 part sugar. They will be attracted to the sugar in the mixture and will eat it readily. Once consumed the yeast will produce gas in the ant, and because they can't expel the gas, it will kill them.
      Another method of elimination involves the elimination of the nest. If you can find the nest, you can try pouring boiling water over the nest. If that isn't sufficient, you can try adding cayenne pepper to the boiling water, or using citrus extracts. If you have multiple nests, you could dig up a bucket of ants from one nest and dump it on another nest. Ants are very territorial, and they will readily hunt and kill invading colonies.
  Biosphere at Columbia University

John Polk Allen, FLS Inventor and Co-founder of Biosphere 2.

Texas billionaire Edward P. Bass co-founder of Biosphere 2

*Columbia U in Arizona - June 19, 2000 Biosphere 2: The Sequel [http://myroad.collegeboard.com/insights/campusvi/index.asp?
*Students study at Biosphere 2 in Columbia University program By Edina A.T. Strum Arizona Daily Wildcat October 15, 1996 [http://wildcat.arizona.edu//papers/90/39/09_1_m.html]


Biosphere 2 Ownership and Board of Directors


The name Biospherics was agreed upon as the name for this new science by those gathered at the Second International Conference on Biospherics in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, Russia, September, 1989, which was co-sponsored by the Institute of Biophysics (Russia) and the Institute of Ecotechnics (UK).

From April 1,1994 to December 31, 1995, Ed Bass operated Biosphere 2 through his appointed...

  Across Arizona Biosphere 2
     One of the most ambitious, controversial, and just plain bizarre schemes to hatch in recent years, Biosphere II stands in the Arizona desert at the northern foot of Mount Lemmon. Developed by a new-age group called "Synergia Ranch," and funded by the Texas billionaire Ed Bass, Biosphere II was originally intended to simulate the earth's entire ecosystem, in order to test the possibility of building self-sustaining colonies on other planets. A crew of four "biospherians" spent two not entirely self-sustained years sealed inside, emerging in 1993, when another crew took their place.
      Amidst allegations of corruption and deceit, the founders of Biosphere II were unceremoniously fired by Mr. Bass in 1994, and the project has since been redirected to focus on pure research—though the Biosphere II is still a sealed system, there are no longer any people locked inside, and scientists study the affects of "greenhouse gases" and other ecosystem changes. Media attention and tourist traffic have died down considerably, but you can still visit the very pretty site and take a self-guided tour (daily 9 AM-4 PM; $11.95).
  Columbia University Names NSF's William Harris New Director of Biosphere 2 Center Arizona Sept. 4, 1996 [http://www.columbia.edu/cu/1996/0904/a.html]
Wallace Broecker, Biosphere 2 Center's science coordinator and this year's recipient of the National Medal of Science and Blue Planet Award, was instrumental in recruiting Harris.
  Biosphere 2 Center:
one of 8 centers in Columbia University's Earth Institute. Copyright © 2000-2001 Biosphere 2 Center. All rights reserved.
Biosphere [http://www.bio2.edu/visitor/visitor_faq.htm]
Q: Are people still living inside Biosphere 2? Top
A: No one lives inside Biosphere 2 any longer. The first crew of biospherians (four women and four men) entered Biosphere 2 on September 26, 1991. The object of the sealed experiment was to assess the operations of the technical and biological systems. The crew members remained inside for two years despite various problems, including limited agricultural productivity and emerged on September 26, 1993. After a six month transition period, a second crew of seven biospherians (five men and two women) entered Biosphere 2. They remained inside for six and a half months, emerging on September 17, 1994.

Q: I heard the first crew of biospherians didn't have enough oxygen. What caused the problem? Top
A: On the Earth, oxygen measures almost 21% of our atmosphere. During the first closure, oxygen levels dropped to almost 14% which was dangerous to the residents. Dr. Wally Broeker from Columbia University was among those called upon to solve the problem. Dr. Broeker discovered that the soils were too rich in organic materials with too many microbes taking up the oxygen. Researchers were puzzled to know where the abundant carbon dioxide that these organisms were producing was going. Investigations revealed that the newly formed cement used to construct Biosphere 2 was absorbing the carbon dioxide. Oxygen had to be injected through the west lung in order to ensure that the biospherians remained in good health. This marked the beginning of a close association between Biosphere 2 and Columbia University.

Q: What are "crazy ants" and what problems do they cause?
A: Paratrechina longicornis, commonly referred to as crazy ants, are found on every continent except Antarctica. They are blamed for decreases in butterflies, moths, beetles, plants and plant pollinators. No toxic fertilizers or insecticides are allowed inside Biosphere 2 and a large population of crazy ants developed. Among other problems, the ants clog sensors and electrical outlets inside Biosphere 2.
  Ants ARGENTINE ANT Iridomyrmex humilis
"Argentine ants have a lot of queens, as many as eight for every 1,000 workers."

...Argentine ants do not fight each other over territory. They will allow each other to pass freely across all their areas. Therefore, Argentine ants are called polydomous.
...The Argentine ant first arrived in the United States sometime before 1891. Scientists who study insects, entomologists, watched these ants travel to California in 1905.
...What do they eat? Like so many pests, or nuisances, the Argentine ant is omnivorous. Argentine ants will eat not only crumbs, but termites and flea eggs (larva). They will also eat insects, earthworms, baby field mice, and candy bars.

...Because the Argentine ant likes honeydew so much, it may be possible to get rid of most of them. If everyone in the whole neighborhood would put Vaseline around the trunks of trees and bushes where aphids live,the ant will get trapped and many will go away because they can not get to their favorite food. The other choice would be to spray the entire neighborhood with bug spray or pesticide which will kill all the insects, not just the Argentine ant. What would happen to an ecosystem if all of the first order consumers were destroyed?

c 10 years later: a threat to the future

Chernobyl happened April 26th 1986

Godzilla (1998) has (the fiction that) Chernobyl earthworms are 17% larger.

What is real is that earthworms can help remove radionuclides from the soil.

Joint U.S. and Eastern European Research on Control of Biofouling by Dreissena Spp. (Zebra Mussels).

chernobyl radionuclides biological remove .

CNN Presents Chernobyl: Legacy of a Meltdown
April 4, 1996 Web posted at: 5:30 p.m. EST (2230 GMT) From Special Reports Correspondent Larry LaMotte
CHERNOBYL, Ukraine (CNN) -- In 1986, an explosion ripped through Reactor 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. It was the world's worst nuclear accident.
Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev broke the news: "Good evening, comrades. All of you know that there has been an incredible misfortune -- the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant. It has painfully affected the Soviet people, and shocked the international community. For the first time, we confront the real force of nuclear energy, out of control."
Ten years later, the radiation remains. It's there in the soil; in the animals; in the people.

[http://www.istc.ru/] The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) promotes the nonproliferation of weapons technology of mass destruction.

[http://www.tech-db.ru/istc/db/pra.nsf/pran/2070] -Full Title: Development of Biological Methods for the Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Radionuclides
"That is why biological methods may become the most prospective methods for soil remediation. Briefly: biological methods are methods using biological objects, such as earthworms, which remove radionuclides from the soil, as well as biosorbents (biohumus - active biological organic fertilizers, bentonitic clay, etc.) which bind residual amounts of radionuclides and toxic substances in the soil."



1994 [[http://www.ornl.gov/ORNLReview/rev25-34/net925.html] A team of Environmental Sciences and Chemical Technology researchers sought to use microorganisms in bioreactors to rid the environment of PCBs and other toxic wastes. Experiments along Bear Creek in Oak Ridge indicated that aerating and watering PCB-contaminated soil encouraged growth of micro- organisms that could digest PCBs and convert them into less toxic substances. This success led to additional investigations into bacterial capabilities for digesting and converting other toxic materials. For many years, researchers in the Health and Safety Research Division analyzed the accuracy of personnel dosimeters for the Laboratory and outside agencies. Other agencies mailed dosimeters to the Laboratory, and the devices were checked by exposure to measured radiation at the Health Physics Research Reactor. In 1989, the Laboratory opened the Radiation Calibration Laboratory for checking dosimeters, radiobiological experiments, and related purposes. This laboratory helped fill the research needs stymied by closure of the Health Physics Research Reactor. ]

Project Activities and Findings:
.....      As in most pioneering research, it turned out that neither hypothesis was validated. Instead, it was discovered that [3] the high level of water pollution in Central and Eastern Europe is the most probable factor keeping the rate of proliferation of zebra mussels to controllable levels there, and [4] the protective 'periphytic' environment of slimy biofilms was probably critical to the persistence of these zebra mussels in such polluted waters. Follow-up research with colleagues in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia is now proposed to [5] use the amazing pollution-filtering and removal capabilities of the surface biofilm-bound zebra mussels to clean up trace contaminants (including radionuclides from the Chernobyl reactor fallout in Central Europe) in lakes and lagoons, and [6] control the biofilm-forming qualities inside ballast water tanks of commercial vessels to minimize the possibilities for future exotic hitchhikers' to be transported around the world in protected slime layers that discharge to new harbors.
Book(s) and other one-time publications:

...     Diggins TP and Baier RE., "Zebra Mussel Filtration to Remove Trace Radionuclides from Contaminated Lakes.", (1999). Abstracts Volume, Published Bibliography. Lake Ecosystems: biological processes, anthropogenic transformation, water quality, International Sci. Conf. on Lake Ecosystems, September 20-25, 1999, Minsk-Naroch, Belarus, page 85.
...     --The IRCOMS (International Research Consortium on Molluscan Symbionts) website highlights the network of scientists and students from seven countries who collaborate on studying the fundamental biology and ecology of molluscan symbionts. Founded in 1993 by the New York State Museum (D.P. Molloy, Coordinator), this 1995-1999 NSF grant on zebra mussels was a major factor in fostering the growth and productivity of the research consortium. The funding provided by NSF is acknowledged on the web page. This webpage is very active.
  Discover Magazine
July 1997 1997 Awards for Technological Innovation
July 1997 1997 Awards for Technological Innovation



METAL-MUNCHING PLANTS Rutgers University's Phytoremediation ILYA RASKIN
"METAL-MUNCHING PLANTS Rutgers University's Phytoremediation ILYA RASKIN Last year in Ukraine, not far from the site of the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, an unusual garden bloomed. On a pond contaminated with the highly radioactive metals cesium and strontium, sunflowers floated on small Styrofoam rafts and sent their roots into the deadly waters. Despite the poisons, the plants thrived, and as they grew, they absorbed large amounts of cesium and strontium into their roots and stems. These sunflowers herald a new and cheaper way to clean up water and soil contaminated by heavy metals. "Phytoremediation"-from the Greek word phyton, for "plant"-is the brainchild of Ilya Raskin, a plant biologist at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. In 1989, Raskin worked down the hall from a scientist studying the use of bacteria to break down contaminants in soil and water, as was done after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. His colleague complained about the limitations of bacterial cleanup-"There's nothing they can do with metals," Raskin recalls him saying. ..."

CITY OF LIGHT Southern California Edison et al.'s Solar Two Power Plant THOMAS BRUMLEVE

BENIGN BATTERY U.S. Air Force's Rome Laboratory's All-Plastic Battery DON DYLIS

RHUBARB TO THE RESCUE Yale University's Destruction of CFC Gases with Rhubarb ROBERT CRABTREE AND JUAN BURDENIUC
  phosphate mine.


Bio-degradable does not happen unless there is bio to degrade the chemical / pollutant

oak ridge
World War II
Manhattan Project
Atomic Bomb
St. Jude Children's Hospital
Tennessee Valley Authority

sodium fluoride (NaF) and stannous fluoride (SnF 2 )
phosphate mine.
medicines, as well as insecticide, pesticide and fertilizer residues,
Floride Action Network
Fluoride Pollution: An Overview

keywords: chernobyl fluoride bacteria cleanup
The International Congress on Hazardous Waste: Impact on Human and Ecological Health Atlanta Marriott Marquis Hotel Atlanta, Georgia June 5-8, 1995
     Human exposure to fluoride has mushroomed since World War II, due not only to fluoridated water and toothpaste but to environmental pollution by major industries, from aluminium to pesticides, where fluoride is a critical industrial chemical as well as a waste by-product.
     "PROGRAM F": SECRET FLUORIDE RESEARCH A secret memo (2 May 1946) to General Groves from Manhattan Project Lt Colonel Rhodes states: "Because of complaints that animals and humans have been injured by hydrogen fluoride fumes in [the New Jersey] area, although there are no pending suits involving such claims, the University of Rochester is conducting experiments to determine the toxic effect of fluoride."

[about a 1944 incident]
To the majority of U.S. residents, bombarded with television commercials for fluoride dental products, fluoride means good dental health -- and that's all. Very few people are aware of its use in pesticides, drugs, common cleaning agents, and other everyday household products. Even fewer realize that the deadly nerve gas, Sarin, owes its toxicity to fluorine.
Individuals are now ingesting fluoride from a growing number of everyday sources including water, food, dental health products, medicines, as well as insecticide, pesticide and fertilizer residues, and even the air they breathe. ..
Fluoride:: aluminum smelters, phosphate fertilizer, ceramics, steel, glass industries. -- insecticide, pesticide and fertilizer residues
Al Gore

  GreenOntario Provincial Strategy GreenOntario Provincial Strategy
Vermicomposting: Let the Worms Do It! - October 1992

  AIDS gets kick-start from cocaine
Feb. 14, 2002
Feb. 14 — Cocaine not only makes people act recklessly — having unsafe sex that can lead to HIV infection — it can also give the virus a kick-start, scientists reported Thursday.
  Lower-status monkeys more likely to take cocaine  [http://www.laurushealth.com/HealthNews/reuters/NewsStory0121200224.htm]
NEW YORK, Jan 21 (Reuters Health) - The alpha male in a group of monkeys gets the best banana, doesn't have to fight--and is less likely than subordinate monkeys to use cocaine, scientists have observed.
  A quote from
George W. Bush
Bush hits Gore on environment ALIQUIPPA, Pa.
(AP) 04/03/00- Updated 10:43 PM ET
Bush said developers often ignore polluted industrial sites because they don't want to deal with government cleanup rules. ''Instead of hassling with sites that might be the subject of Superfund liability lawsuits, developers simply move on to pristine sites farther out in the country on the suburban fringe,'' he told a group of plant construction workers wearing hard hats. ''Brownfields get passed over, while greenfields get paved over, furthering what's now known as urban sprawl.''

The page was too long and I put this at https://thepiedpiper.tripod.com/2002_03Mar_16__Issues.htm to work on separately.

Issues that make America appear to be several years behind in technology.
Item Issue Result
Stimulant Drugs
    and others 
  To overcome 
    feelings of tiredness
Alkaloids ->
Stimulants are used as diet aids 
and Doctors require their patients
to eat healthy food since they will
eat less food over all.

Ritalin, ect. do not seem to come with the same warning.

The empty calories of stimulants keep the body / brain from being well nourished.

Eliminating sugar, aspartame, or msg
can still leave empty calories.

Sugar, aspartame, and msg are all stimulants

Switching from sugar to aspartame still leaves you with a stimulant and if coupled with caffeine from sodas the body may not want food. 


March 7, 1996 Coastal playground turned killing ground. Stuart Leavenworth

18 March 1996 Hogging The Table by John Greenwald  - 
Time Magazine Archive.

March 21, 1998 - Drugged Waters by Janet Raloff
*     Regulators have attempted to cope with this problem by asking manufacturers to model a new drug's projected concentration in public water supplies, based on what was known about company projections for how much of the compound might be sold, the quantities of lake and stream water into which the excreted drug would be flushed, and laboratory information on the rate at which it would break down in the environment. They were also asked to predict its accumulation in wildlife.
*    In the United States, an environmental assessment containing such estimates would be submitted to the Food and Drug Administration as part of the approval process for a new drug. If such an assessment suggested that worrisome levels of a drug might build up, a manufacturer would have to prepare a more detailed investigation. Such an environmental impact statement might even explore 
possible mitigation measures, explains Daniel C. Kearns of FDA in Rockville, Md. 
*     So seldom did an environmental assessment for a new drug suggest a hazard, however, that the FDA decided last July to reduce a manufacturer's environmental reporting requirements. The agency concluded that excreted drugs "are probably not having a significant environmental effect,"  Kearns says. "So unless modeling data suggest a drug's concentrations would reach 1 ppb, a manufacturer no longer must submit an environmental assessment.
*     "We've never seen a situation where we believe you would have an actual impact upon the environment if [drug] concentrations were under that," he told Science News.
*     Though modeling provided a useful surrogate for water monitoring when laboratory analyses were 
too crude to detect low drug concentrations in the environment, chemists today routinely detect parts per trillion (ppt) of many waterborne pollutants.
*     When asked whether FDA requires any monitoring of water supplies to see whether concentrations in the real world match the predictions of drug manufacturers' models, Kearns said no.
*     If they had, many German chemists now believe, regulators might have received a rude awakening
     -- as Thomas A. Ternes did.

Jan 30, 1999 Marine epidemiology comes of age. by Janet Raloff, Science News. Over the past 15 years, for instance, "there has
been a very striking increase in the frequency and extent of harmful algal blooms,"

03 Apr 1999 It's raining pesticides by Pearch, Fred and Debora Mackenzie - "a new study reveals that much of the precipitation in Europe contains such high levels of dissolved pesticides that it would be illegal to supply it as drinking water." Has Novartis' weedkiller Target and Monsanto's Glyphosate herbicide round-Up on it. 

May 7 2000 - Anti-depressants get into water system by  Roger Dobson

11/19/00 -
Pollution, unchecked sprawl threaten area's water supply by Katherine Bouma

06/12/00 - When Water Kills
The dangerous consequences of factory farming are being felt all across the country BY ANDREW NIKIFORUK

11/08/00 Drugs found in tap water By Kathleen Fackelmann, USA TODAY
17 year old Ashley Mulroy finds antibiotics in public supplies.  Ashley Mulroy from Wheeling, W.Va won the Stockholm Junior Water Prize, an international science competition sponsored by ITT Industries.
For information on the Stockholm Junior Water Prize, see the Web site of  the Water Environment Federation:

June 7, 2001 Teen achieves research landmark
By Terry Rice - A 17-year-old student from Halifax, Nova Scotia created a media fury last week becoming the youngest woman in 90 years to have an article published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ). Lindsey  Edmunds has won a Faculty of Science Entrance Scholarship and a scholarship from the Canadian Merit Scholarship Foundation, which will cover the full cost of her undergraduate degree.
     ".Edmunds was introduced to probiotics, when her sister Andrea developed a bowel infection after taking antibiotics which destroyed the beneficial bacteria in her intestinal tract while destroying the disease-producing bacteria causing her sinus problem. She began researching probiotics (microbial supplements that help replenish the body's friendly bacteria) for a science fair project when she was just 15 in grade 10."

04/20/01 - UK's polluted rivers named By BBC News Online's environment correspondent Alex Kirby 

Raining chemicals world wide.
investing in America as a world wide bread basket would still leave those chemicals in the investing countries.

Those chemicals are traveling world wide and have showed up in the food chain (in measurable levels)   for over ten years.


requiring that they buy 
more pollution credits
With pharmesudical 
chemicals killing the bacteria 
that normally keep major 
reactions from happening, 
the illnesses get blamed on manufacturing chemicals 
that humans are normally 
able to shrug

to add insult to injury the manufacturing companies 
may be required to pay for 
mental insurence that 
wasn't needed before.

 [http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/ official_report/wa-01/wa0822.htm]
Written Answers Wednesday 22 August 2001 Scottish Executive Agriculture 
...Holding answer issued: 10 August 2001 (S1W-16993) Rhona Brankin: The Scottish Executive recognises the seriousness of the impact of endocrine disrupters and dioxins on human health. The risk of direct exposure through air, water and soil is very limited, and the majority of human exposures to dioxins arise through the consumption of food. Measures are therefore in place to limit the amount of dioxins reaching the food chain. Pollution control legislation, including the Environmental Protection Act 1990 and the Municipal Waste Incinerators Directives, which came into force in the UK in December 1996 has greatly reduced emissions of dioxins and other endocrine disrupting chemicals in the UK. The provisions of the new Pollution Prevention and Control (Scotland) Regulations 2000 will continue this trend. The Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) include conditions within Consents to Discharge under the Control of Pollution Act 1974 that limit discharges of certain endocrine disrupting compounds into the aquatic environment.
The endocrine disruptors that are in pesticides also had the potential of signaling a death toll to some that are in pharmesudical drugs. At this time pharmesudical drugs do not require enviromental impacts or pollution credits. Many manufacturing chemicals can biodegrade with the help of micro-organisms, pharmesudical drugs can kill those micro-organisms. Hard for detergent to be bio-degradable when the bio has been killed by pharmesudicals.
Pharmaceutical Chemicals
  No pollution credits at all
 March 21, 1998 - Drugged Waters by Janet Raloff

Bayer, for example has six sectors of business activity: agricultural produce, organic products, pharmaceutical products, industrial products, polymers and information techniques. The same holds for Sanofi and most of the other major concerns, such as Ciba-Geigy, Hoffman-Laroche, Hoechst and others.
This information is from 'Anti-Vivisection Scientific Committee', great information until you realized that once animals have that many rights what is to keep someone from clonning a dog that can stand up-right and has hands.

Conspiracy?  Not when a company has control of Ritalin and Baby food.  Novartis has Ritalin and also owns Gerber.  All of Novartis' incarnations seem to give money to the Clinton's, as long as the Clinton's and Gore's support the idea of America having mental problems.
Antibiotics http://www.kidsgrowth.com/resources/advicedetail.cfm?id=30
 upper respiratory infection
(Doctors have since learned that colds and most other infections are caused by viruses, and viruses are not destroyed by antibiotics.)   Therefore, a penicillin shot became the standard treatment for colds, sore throats, ear infections, and pneumonia.

A four-year-old with delayed speech is bound to feel   frustration, even if he is getting speech therapy. Help your  nephew work out his frustration in more positive ways than hitting people.

Education it is hard to be socialized to others when you are not socialized to your own body. Constant ear infections can cause learning delays and frustrations. The late 1950's and 1960's, upon the advent of synthetic antibiotics 

Alarms rang 50 years ago 

Scientists warned 30 years ago that overuse of medicines in animals would eventually affect humans Links, reports and background: more about antibiotics in food 

James Meikle and Paul Brown Tuesday September 7, 1999 
The Guardian 
  "Alarm bells started ringing over the widespread use of antibiotics in agriculture almost as soon as they made their entry into livestock farming in the US 50 years ago. By 1969 scientists in Britain were warning of the "real and potential danger" that overuse in animals would help speed the rate at which bacteria in humans developed resistance to the medicines"
  "Today nearly all UK broilers are given these drugs to feed Britain's hunger for cheap meat. In the last week Britain's biggest producer has recanted on accepted practice and decided to phase out growth promoters by the end of the year. Most pigs are routinely fed antibiotics too. Their use has been common in the US since 1949 and Britain since 1953." 
  "The committee disputed claims by some farmers, vets and drug industry representatives, that there was still no compelling evidence of drug resistance in livestock, and asserted "that resistant bacteria in food animals have arisen as a consequence of the use of antibiotics in the farm environment and current husbandry practice". 
  That meant, it said, that there should be less use of all antibiotics, not just growth promoters. Committee members were particularly worried by the agricultural use of flouroquinolones, synthetic antibiotics often used in severe cases of human infections such as E. coli, salmonella and typhoid."

Bayer's Ag Sales of Anthrax Antibiotic Threaten Public Health November 3, 2001 
What If Cipro Stopped Working? 
The New York Times Cipro, despite its current fame for preventing and treating anthrax, is in danger of becoming a casualty of what might be called the post-antibiotic age. Bayer, the maker of Cipro, also sells a chemically similar drug called Baytril, which is used in large-scale poultry production worldwide. The widespread use of Baytril in chickens has already been shown to decrease Cipro's effectiveness in humans for some types of infections. 

Super Bugs Have Invaded Our Meat

agricultural, fluoroquinolones, gulf war, CIPRO is ciprofloxacin, a fluorinated quinolone, belonging to a class of fluorinated antibiotics 

Fluoxetine (Prozac) has been shown to cause severe liver dysfunction such as hepatitis (Cai et al, 1999; Johnston & Wheeler, 1997; Mars et al, 1991; Friedenberg & Rothstein, 1996)

Key Words pharmaceutic,
Pharmaceutical chemistry, 
a pharmaceutical product,

[ http://www.njinsider.com/largestemployers04.htm ]
US subsidiary of company formed 1997 as a result of merger of former Sandoz and Ciba-Geigy pharmaceutical firms, both based in Switzerland, employs about 85,000 people and operates in over 100 countries> Summit facility, former Ciba-Geigy national headquarters for pharmaceutical division, became corporate headquarters of US operations, headquarters of Consumer Health Division, includes Gerber Products Company infant nutrition products, Novartis OTC (over-the-counter medicines) and Medical Nutrition; other operations include healthcare sectors, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Geneva Pharmaceuticals and CIBA Vision; Novartis Agribusiness, growing and enhancing crops, vegetables and flowers, sustaining animal health, Novartis Seeds produces high-quality crop, flower and vegetable seeds, Novartis Crop Protection world leader in herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides; also makes parasite-control products and medicines for pets and farm animals> Consumer trademarked brands include Ascriptin, Desenex, Doan's, Ex-Lax, Gas-X, Habitrol (nicotine transdermal system), Maalox, Tavist-D, Theraflu, and Triaminic> Former Sandoz facility in East Hanover became headquarters of Novartis pharmaceutical business with 4,600 employees of 7,000 in US; announced decision 1999 to consolidate Summit operations in East Hanover following construction of expanded facilities to be completed 2003> Other facilities in NJ include distribution center in West Caldwell, advertising and sales training in Florham Park, and over-the-counter business in Parsippany> Sandoz US operation established 1919, one of early dyestuff suppliers to Paterson silk factories.

[ http://www.etenengenen.nl/files/reader.doc ]"Marker-assisted selection is the first choice if we can solve the problem," said Wally Beversdorf, head of plant science and agribusiness for Syngenta, which was formed by the merger of the agricultural businesses of Novartis and AstraZeneca. While Syngenta is still committed to genetic engineering, Dr. Beversdorf said, it is applying that technique "where we have to, where there is no opportunity for marker-assisted breeding." 

1998 -
The 69-year-old Hungary-born Pusztai, who had been working at the RRI for 36 years, was removed from service, his research papers were seized, and his data confiscated; and he was prohibited from talking to anyone about his research work. All this for having spoken - "all of 150 seconds," he says - in a programme called World in Action on Granada TV in August 1998, about his findings on the effects of GM foods that ran counter to the prevalent scientific dogma that they were safe. He had also expressed concern that the testing procedures to establish the safety of GM foods may not be adequate.

Arpad Puxztai’s Homepage – 
[ http://www.freenetpages.co.uk/hp/A.Pusztai/

[ http://www.thecampaign.org/newsupdates/august.htm
August 1999 headlines and summaries
In a report sent to several thousand of the world's large institutional investors, including British pension funds, Deutsche Bank says that "growing negative sentiment" is creating problems for the leading companies, including Monsanto and Novartis. "We note that Monsanto has spent more than $1.5m (#1m) to persuade English consumers of the rectitude of their position, but alas, to no avail. Monsanto is little match for Prince Charles, an anti-GMO advocate, when it comes to sensitivity for the English people's desires," says the report. "More broadly speaking, it appears the food companies, retailers, grain processors, and governments are sending a signal to the seed producers that 'we are not ready for GMOs'." 
...The report is a serious embarrassment to the Labour party because its pension fund has large investments in two leading GM companies, AstraZeneca and Novartis, both of which are reportedly considering selling their GM divisions after years of heavy investments but few returns. 

** use these keywords to search with,
Pfiesteria, dinoflagellates, Aspergillus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Stachybotrys atra, Stachybotrys chartarum (atra),
saprophytic, epizootic infections,  Chytrid, A. sydowii, chytridiomycosis, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Candida albicans,
Neuse - River, Red Tide, Great Lakes plankton,
* Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) is capable of producing several toxins including
macrocyclic trichothecenes
(satratoxins H, G, F, roridin E, verrucarin J, and Trichoverrols A and B).
** Corporate Farms using Antibiotics as growth aids,
Antibacterials used for cleaning,
** MSG sprayed plants as a growth aid

News Snippets
  Aquatic Fauna in Peril: The Southeastern Perspective
     Edited By George W. Benz And David E. Collins
Physical Alteration of Aquatic Habitats

    Drainage schemes in Iraq are destroying the vast Mesopotamian marshes. The projects, initiated by the Iraqi
government, have resulted in the diversion of virtually the entire Euphrates River into the so-called "Third River."
Along with canalization and drainage work on the Tigris River, the projects prevented water from reaching
two-thirds of the delta marshes in 1993. A study by the University of Exeter indicated that this is an ecological
catastrophe of a scale not seen in recent times. Conditions are worsened by the huge Ataturk Dam upstream on
the Euphrates River in Turkey. These factors not only threaten this region’s freshwater and marine systems, they
are also destroying the way of life of the Madan people, the so-called "Marsh Arabs." In a deliberate campaign of
genocide, Sadaam Hussein has ordered that the marshes be burned. Large fires in the marshes are clearly visible
on satellite photos.

-- I have not had time to confirm all of these but they do seem worthwhile checking --
The aquifer under coastal Israel and Gaza has been overpumped... This
over-pumping lowered the water table, allowing the sea water to seep in.
In Gaza they now drink what they call "salt tea".  The Gaza aquifer is
unrecoverable.  The taste of salt is not uncommon in many villages in the
southern part of the [Gaza] Strip... the drinking water, which flows only
a few hours each day, tastes like brine...
<<------------ -------->>
The "sea of Sodom" is also known as the Dead Sea and the Salt Sea.
Because of the extreme concentration of salt, nothing except algae and
microscopic bacteria can live in the actual "sea of Sodom."
<<-------- --------->>
KHARTOUM, March 31, 1999 (Reuters) - Villagers in southern Sudan's largest
town have been prohibited from eating fish from the Nile after the river
was clogged with the carcasses of fish, hippos and crocodiles which died

"The whole thing started last Friday (March 26) when the fish started
jumping up and down.  Then they started to die."
<<------------ ------------->>
4/16/99, (AP) -- About 500,000 West Coast spiny rock lobsters have
stranded themselves on a South African beach...160 miles north of Cape
Town... The small lobsters, also know as crayfish, were forced to flee a
"red tide" which occurs when weather conditions cause rapid growth of a
species of algae that lowers oxygen levels and stains the sea red.
<<---------- From "Earth's sick oceans ominous harbinger," The Toronto Star, 7/19/98:
* The cod are disappearing from the Atlantic;
* The Atlantic salmon are disappearing from Canadian rivers;
* Pacific salmon stocks are collapsing or in danger of collapse;
* The American eel is disappearing from the Great Lakes;
* The Arctic char, a staple of Inuit life, is in trouble.
* At the mouth of the Mississippi river, agricultural runoff has created a
   biological "dead zone" the size of the state of New Jersey.
* Along the California coast, there has been a 70 per cent decline in
   zooplankton, a major link in the food chain.
* As far north as Alaska, the fur seal, sea lions and other populations of
   marine mammal have been decimated.
* Nearly 60 per cent of the coral on the Great Barrier Reef - the great
   living wonder that stretches 2,000 kilometres along Australia's northeast
   coast - shows signs of bleaching from warm water and fresh water flooding.
It is not known if bleached coral will continue to support life.
* Roughly 10 per cent of the world's coral has been destroyed, another 30
   per cent threatened. One of every 10 fish is caught near coral reefs, the
   "rain forests of the ocean."
* The sturgeon of the Caspian Sea, source of the world's best caviar, are
   threatened by raw sewage pouring in from the Volga, the Ural, the Samur,
   the Kura and the Terek rivers and by a mad rush to divide up undersea oil
* The nearby Aral Sea is now part desert. Short-sighted planners diverted
   the rivers that feed it to farming. This has turned the Aral from the
   fourth largest lake on earth to a salt pond a quarter its former volume.
* Half of the stocks of the Akoya oyster - mainstay of the Japanese pearl
   industry - have been lost because of warm water, the toxic algae bloom
   known as "red tide," and a mysterious virus.
* Half of the fish bred in Hong Kong coastal waters - 1,500 tonnes - were
   wiped out in a few days in April by the red tide.
<<------------- -------->>
BAGHDAD, Iraq (AP) 4/19/99 -- ...what could be the worst drought in 50
years... Water levels in the Tigris and Euphrates rivers have dropped so
much this year that people can cross them on foot, according to farmers
and residents in northern Iraq...


Tigris river [http://www.ancientroute.com/water/tigrisrv.htm] mouth of the River Shatt al Arab/Tigris/Euphrates
Rivers of Europe  [http://www.public.asu.edu/~goutam/gcu325/enlarge.html]  
The Living Soil
PROSI Magazine - June 1999 - N° 365 - Agriculture
By S. Facknath and B. Lalljee
The soil in perspective
UN World Water Day [http://waterday2002.iaea.org/English/agricult.html] Saline water
1991 - 

    January 31, 1991


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